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Transcript of The Camps
Background Hitler promoted anti-semitism
between 1933 and 1945 20,000 camps were built
concentration camps were originally for German Communist, socialist, social democrats, gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and "asocials"
Not until 1938 Jews were imprisoned
April 1, 1933: Government demands boycott of Jewish businesses
September 15, 1935: Nuremberg race laws establish Jewish rights
jkj WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF HOLOCAUST? derived from the Greek word Holokauston
english translation: "a sacrifice consumed by fire"
WHAT'S GOING ON... HOW IT STARTED... Wannsee Conference
Held outside Berlin on 20 January 1945
Attended by top Nazi government officials,
not including Hitler
Created a plan on how to eliminate all 11 million Jews
The conference lasted only 90 minutes
Hitler’s orders according to Henrich Himmler
“The Fuhrer has ordered that the Jewish
question be solvesd once and for all and that
we are to implement that order.
The Jews are the sworn enemies of the
German people and [every] Jew that we can
lay our hands on is to be destroyed now
during the war, without exception.”
Transporting the Jews to the camps
Jews were transported by railroad cars usually used by cattle
When railroad cars were in scarce demand, Jews were shipped even before weapons
Thousands died on the trip from the ghettos to the camps because of starvation, extreme weather, and sickness
Kids in Captivity
"Like the adults, the kids were only a mere bag of bones, without muscles or fat, and the thin skin like pergament scrubbed through and through beyond the hard bones of the skeleton and ignited itself to ulcerated wounds. Abscesses covered the underfed body from the top to the bottom and thus deprived it from the last rest of energy. The mouth was deeply gnawed by noma-abscesses, hollowed out the jaw and perforated the cheeks like cancer." Many decaying bodies were full of water because of the burning hunger, they swelled to shapeless bulks which could not move anymore. Diarrhoea, lasting for weeks, dissolved their irresistant bodies until nothing remained ....." (Lucie Adelsberger)
Upon arrival, most kids taken to Aushwitz were killed when they arrived. Towards the end of the war, children were often thrown straight into the ovens in order to save money and supplies.
An estimated 1.5 million children were killed in the Holocaust
Sealed chambers filled with huge engines that filled the room with deadly gases
Many could fit up to 100 people and once it was filled deadly gases would rain down from the vents in the ceiling
Guards would often tell the prisoners that they would just be taking a shower or be disinfected to kill the lice upon arrival
Many prisoners at the camps were given the task of taking any gold or valuable from the dead
Auschwitz used a gas known as Zyklon B, which could kill people in about 15 minutes; originally used to kill lice and disinfect
3 September 1941- Deputy Commander Karl Fritzch used the gas on 850 Soviet prisoners as an experiment; it was so effective that if was used in four chambers at Birkneau (up to 6,000 were killed a day)
Inmates volunteered for painful and life threatening medical experiments in order to receive more food
EX: immersed in freezing water, infected with diseases, injected with warfare chemicals, and injected with chemicals to change to eye color
Dr. Josef Mengele was known as the “Angel of Death”, experimented on almost 1500 sets of twins, only 200 people survived
WHERE IT'S AT... Auschwitz
The Saint of Auschwitz: Catholic priest named Maximilian was killed by poison injection so another prisoner, Franciszek Gajowniczeck, could escape
1.1 million people were murdered at this camp (originally the Soviet government said 4 million were killed); that’s more than combined American and British losses
Above the entrance of the gas chamber was a Star of David and the Hebrew phrase “This is the Gateway to God. Righteous men will pass through.”
The enterance had a sign that read “Arbeit Macht Frei” (Work Makes You Free)
Originally intended to be a prison for prisoners of war
Anne Frank was transferred here in October 1944 from Aushwitz; she died from typhus several weeks later
There were no gas chambers to be at this camp but the average lifespan of a prisoner was only nine months; about half a million people were murdered at this camp
The End. Death Marches
During the final months of WWII, the Nazis herded the living out of the camps and onto death marches in order to escape the advancing Allied forces
19 January 1945-about 66,000 from Auschwitz were marched out of the camp; most marched barefoot for weeks and those who fell behind were shot by the guards
An estimated 100,000 died on these marches including half of the 66,000 who left Auschwitz
The Allies never had to fight any battles while liberating the camps, the German guards simply fled
Majdanek-first camp freed, located in Poland, Soviets reached the camp on 23 July 1944 and found mountains of bodies, ovens filled with the dead, and about a thousand survivors
15 April 1945-British liberate Bergen-Belson only to find rotting corpses everywhere and barracks built for 100 filled with up to 1000 people with typhus (14,000 died between 15 April and 20 June 1945)
The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: Publication International, Ltd. , 2003. Print.
Uschan, Michael V. The Holocaust. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 2005. Print.
"BBC TWO unravels the secrets of Auschwitz." BBC. BBC, 3 December 2004. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2004/12_december/03/auschwitz_facts.shtml>.
Bülow, Louis. "Gate to Hell: Auschwitz." Auschwitz: Nazi Death Camp. N.p., 2010. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://www.auschwitz.dk/Auschwitz.htm>.
Bülow, Louis. "The Children of Izieu." The Children of Izieu: In Memory of La Maison d'Izieu. N.p., 2008. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://www.izieu.com/>.
"Nazi Medical Experiments." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1 April 2010. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005168>.
Rachel Feinberg & Katie Hedgpeth objective: The STudent Will learn about life and conditions in Holocaust Concentration Camps