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Transcript of Virtues
Since the best life for man is a life of happiness and a happy life is a life lived according to virtue or excellence, the best state will be one that encourages its citizens to live a virtuous life (Aristotle)
We can be happy: be virtuous :-)
What are the virtues?
If I love, I am happy.
For this, we need to perfect the powers of our soul (intellect/will) & the exercise of our freedom.
To mature, to grow, we need to progress. To become better. And this is not automatic.
I need to want it, to know the goal and go for it, to do some concrete actions that will take me there. Struggle. Exercise.
Immanent character of
Virtues are a firm attitude, a habit, a firm disposition of my intellect and will, which:
a) regulates my acts according to reason
b) orders my passions according to reason
c) guides my conduct according to reason.
Natural tendency towards the easy good, the pleasurable... concupiscible appetite... or to selfishness, vanity, utilitarian efficacy (irascible)
We are not "by nature" just or temperate...
Virtues regulate, moderate my reactions so that they become 2nd nature... so I act in a
rational way, my decisions are rational.
Virtues are the habitual choosing of
the true good freely.
My tendencies (1st reactions) need to learn how to reach their end... so the intelligence guides them, and I do it
by willing to do it.
The person has the task of forming and developing habits in order to become freer from the lower faculties.
Habits facilitate the acquisition of goods or hinder it (vice).
A virtuous habit is a free action. A virtuous person can do what she wants to do.
Our choices make a mark. I become someone. Character.
If I lie, I become a liar.
If I give, I become generous.
If I forgive, I am merciful.
Moral Virtues (will):
Mother of all virtues
desire to act well
Live in reality: what's up?
reflection, objectivity, ask advice, don't procrastinate...
: To give each their due.
helps us to realise that the other is also a person.
- Religion: to give what's due to God
- Filial piety: to give what's due to parents
- social justice: to give what's due to society.... etc.
: directed towards the difficult good
Courage: to overcome obstacles & difficulties.
Carry out: perseverance, constancy, patience
Finish what I've started: fidelity
: moderate our concupiscible appetite
food, drink, sleep: sobriety, abstinence
sex: continence, chastity, modesty
- 'to give my word'
- dependent on anything or free?
- detachment .... only material goods?