Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Biology - Evolution Unit

Ms. Boyea's Evolution Unit Notes
by

Michelle Munn

on 21 October 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Biology - Evolution Unit

niche (role of organism within an ecosystem)
Variation
Adaptations
Natural selection:
Speciation
EVOLUTION UNIT
The process where by organisms possessing the best traits in a given environment survive to reproduce.
Evolution
Is any change in the relative frequency of alleles in a population
Different alleles arose from mutations and this gives a variety of traits. Survival depends on having the best traits and reproducing.
Inherited traits that increase the chance of survival
Formation of a new species
Drill: Evolution Day 1
Write your own definitions for 'Natural Selection' and 'Adaptation.' It must be explained clearly
Half-Life: How many half-lives happened if 25% is left.
What are the organs called that are no longer used like your tailbone even though you don't have a tail.
Vertebrates have similar bones and structure. What could they all have in common?
Why can't you date rock layers if they've been messed up?
How are these structures related?
Why can I use amino acids to show evolution?
[think about what codes for proteins]
What's it called when 2 different species evolve together over time. [Like a horse evolving WITH its environment]
Cells, Multicellular organisms, and complex multicellular.
Put them in order
A single-celled organism has:
a cell wall
a cell membrane
lots of ribosomes
What type of cells is it?
Bacteria, Animal, Virus or Plant
What would characterize a evolutionary relationship?
Common Ancestor shown by common DNA, and homologous structure
What would you look for on a gel electrophoresis pick similar species
Day 7 - Shortcycle
Fitness:
Day 1 - 1ntro
OBJECTIVE: Students will describe the effects of natural processes in order to explain the basic evolutionary terms
Airplane Demo:
Make the BEST paper airplane you can. That can hit a target.
Look around do all your birds look alike?

Your little birds that live on the main land, BUT your food lives on a little island and you have to get to the island.
If your bird gets food, then it lives and has babies. (help a classmate whose bird didn't live make one like yours)

The best ones survive! Repeat!
Look around you, what do the birds look like now?
Predator!!!

Hawk! Watch out!!
Last round: all the 'birds' to the recycle bin!

Then have a seat
Giraffe Cards!


Arrange the giraffe cards in story order.
When you're done, raise your hand so I can check them
Write your own definitions for terms and include a icon to represent the term
Exit Ticket

Complete BOTH sides of the exit ticket
Peppered Moths
This moth is camouflaged against a tree trunk.

BUT there was a ton of pollution and the light bark turned dark.
Oh no!!
But there are other varieties of colors!

Why weren't there lots of black ones before?
I need 3 volunteers to test what would happen?
Day 2 - Adaptations
Catch food as a predator shark (or avoid being caught like prey gazelle)
Look through a magazine from the back of the room.

Describe an example of an adaptation that you see in an organism.

Make sure to include the title and issue number of the magazine!
Hold enough water to survive like camels and cactus

Stay cool like fennec foxes or warm like polar bears
Look scary or bad
Hide from other organisms: like the octopus, crocodile, insects or rabbits
SWBAT
Identify various adaptations
Create an organism adapted to a given environment
IOT
Explain the mechanism of evolutionary change
OBJECTIVE
SWBAT
Identify various adaptations
Create an organism adapted to a given environment
IOT
Explain the mechanism of evolutionary change
OBJECTIVE
Remember the paper airplane you threw in class,
1. What would be a good adaptation for your airplanes to hit a further target?
2. What is an adaptation?
Group Drill #2
What's the adaptation?
Camouflage
Adaptation:
Adaptation:
If you look dangerous, other organisms will leave you alone. Like scary insects that are harmless
Fennec Foxes
Adaptation:
Regulate heat
Adaptation:
Conserve water
Adaptation:
Predator & Prey
Find an adaptation:
Create an animal which is going to be strong and resilient enough to survive in that environment. Follow the directions below:
Create a Creature:


1. Pick 1 of the environment options.

2. Your animal must FIT INTO the existing food chain - it cannot be the ultimate predator (the one which can eat everything else and nothing can eat it).

3. Decide how your animal is adapted to its environment (fill in the chart).
Create a Creature:
Day 3 - Darwin
Drill:

Why do you think fossils helped scientists figure out how animals have changed over time?
Guided Reading: Read the text book starting on pg 369 to answer the questions. Quietly and independently!

As you work on this we will conference about your grades.
Darwin Lamarck
Who was right?
Brainpop: Darwin
Dichotomous Keys!!!
Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature



Two-word name (Genus & species)
In italics or underlined
1st letter of Genus is uppercased and species is not
Carolus Linnaeus
Scientists classify organisms the same way based on characteristics and similarities in DNA.
Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities

Classification is also known as taxonomy
What is Classification?

SWBAT
use a dichotomous key to identify organisms

IOT
demonstrate the degrees of relatedness among organisms or species
OBJECTIVE
Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists
There is lots of confusion in Using Different Languages for Names

What do you call those little grey bugs you find under rocks that roll up into a little ball?
No, in order to be the same species two organisms have to mate and produce fertile offspring.
When donkeys and horses breed, their offspring is called a mule. Mules are not fertile (can’t produce offspring. Are donkeys and horses the same species?
Species
Genus
Class
Phylum
Which of the choices listed below is the largest level of classification?
18th century taxonomist
Classified organisms by their structure
Developed naming system still used today
Carolus Linnaeus
1707 – 1778
Species
Kingdom
Order
Phylum
Mice and rats belong to the same family. Which of these is NOT the same between mice and rats?
Which TWO are more closely related?
Binomial Nomenclature
Who do you think is more closely related? A lion and a tiger or a dog and a fox.
Spaghetti
Good
For
Over
Came
Phillip
King
Species is the smallest group. Members of a species are very similar and are able to produce fertile offspring.
Porcellio scaber
Armadillo Bug
Wood Bug
Chuggypig
Wood Louse
Rolly Poly
Potato Bug
Sow Bug
Pill Bug
Species- Sapien
Genus- Homo
Family- Hominidae
Order- Primates
Class- Mammalia
Phylum- Vertebrata
Kingdom- Animalia
Day 4 - Classification
Drill:

1. Who was the scientist that thought organisms with the best traits survived to reproduce.
2. Who was the scientist that thought that organisms passed on the traits they acquired in their lifetime to offspring.
Binomial Nomenclature
Quick Review before an Exit Quiz!


Adaptation
Variation
Natural Selection
Mutation
Study for a quiz on basic evolutionary terms tomorrow
The largest group is Kingdom with the groups getting smaller.
Taxonomy
is also known as classification
Beefalo
Zedonk
Liger
GALLERY WALK
Evidence for Evolution
How do we know its happening???
Common Ancestor
SWBAT
Explain how fossils, comparative anatomy and biochemistry are evidence of evolution

IOT
Explain the mechanism of evolutionary change
OBJECTIVE
is the study of how the embryo of different organisms develop into a fetus.
We can learn a lot about the evolution of organisms and how they are related by comparing their anatomical structures.
Fossils show a progression from the earliest unicellular organisms to the many unicellular and multicellular organisms living today.
Transitional Stages
are the remains or traces typically left in sedimentary rock by previously existing organisms.
Did humans really come from monkeys???
A salmon laid 1000 eggs, but the ocean could only support 100. What would happen and how would this benefit the species?
Include the terms:
Overproduction
Variation
Adaptation
Competition
Natural Selection
Drill
Analogous Structures- organisms that have structures with the same function, but are built differently.


Example: bats, birds, and butterflies all have wings, because the same environmental pressures to learn to fly. BUT they have different structures!
Notice the arms/wings are made of the same types of bones but look totally different
Remember the prefix “homo” means the same.
Structures with the same underlying structure but can have different functions

This similarity in structure suggests that they all evolved from a common ancestor.
DNA evidence is the BEST.

You can use a gel electrophoresis or DNA sequencing to show relationships between organisms and ancestors.
Ambulocetus 40 mya
Modern Toothed Whale
10 mya
Rodhocetus 30 mya
60 million years
The Whale

Oldest known whale = 53 million yrs old

They have remnants of hip/leg bones.

This acts as evidence that they evolved from 4 legged land mammals.
Evolution Fun Facts
Day 5 - Evidence for Evolution
Common relative from which you share
Highlight the Common Ancestor
WHere is the highlighted Dinos' common ancestor?
In-between species that link old to the new, indicates a common ancestor
Transition Forms
old transition new
Fossils
Homologous Structure
Comparative Anatomy
Analogous Structures
What analogous structure do these organisms all share?
Similar body styles to serve the same purpose.
Vestigial Structures
Vestigial structures- are structures without a function. Thought to be left over from earlier ancestor that used it.
Why do whales have hip bones if they don't have legs?
Vestigial Structures
Mesonychid 60 mya
Comparative Embryology
(Embryos are fertilized eggs)
Biochemical evidence
Exit Ticket: Answer the 7 HSA questions. Graded on accuracy!
Day 6 - Carbon Dating


1. What order do you think these 3 types of species originated:
•Complex Multicellular organisms
•Single celled organisms
•Multicellular organisms
2. Why did you pick this order?
3. Which are you a Prokaryote or Eukaryote?
Drill
Coevolution
Two species evolve in response to changes in each other and evolve to fit together better
Convergent Evolution
Unrelated organisms develop analogous structures, ex. the dolphin and fish, have similar fins
Extinction
disappearance of a species
Isotopes:

Radioactive atoms that decay over time
Half-Life:

The time it takes for half an isotope to decay
Examples:
Carbon-14 has a half life of 5730 yrs
Absolute Carbon-Dating
While an organism is alive it takes in:
Carbon-14 and it stays at a certain percentage in the organism.
When it dies:
you stop taking in Carbon-14
C-14 is unstable, so:
over time it decays
Absolute Carbon-Dating
To date a dead organism, scientists compare:
how much C-14 it has now to how much it had when it died
Using half-life of Carbon, you can determine how old something is. If you started with 40 g of C-14 and now you have 10 g. It has had
2
half-lives making it
11,460
years old
Relative dating

Method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing it with the other fossils in other layers of rock
Brainpop: Carbon Dating
Review Jeopardy

Your Quiz is today! So we are going to review.

As we go please write the terms you still don't understand next to your score



Which is the transition form?
Quiz
Micropipette Challenge
Day 8 - Gel Electro
Set up Gels and start Unit Review
Day 9 - Unit Review
Day 10 - Test!
Brainpop: Extinction, Nat Sel & Human Evol
Lab Results
Drill: How is an adaptation different than a variation?

Turn in your lab report!
Unit Review!
Artificial Selection:
Humans breed other organisms for a particular trait. Examples: Corn, Seedless fruit, and dogs
Focused on Galapagos Island Finches
Saw variations, so some rganisms were
more fit to survive
Theory of Natural
Selection
Naturalists

Evolution happens:
change over time
thinks variations are
because organisms acquired
traits and passed them on
Updated Adaptations
Catching food if you're a predator (cheetah) or avoiding capture if you're the prey (gazelle)
As you watch the short clips, find an adaptation and describe the purpose of the adaptation you chose.
Holding enough water to survive like camels and cactus

Staying cool like fennec foxes or warm like polar bears
Look scary or bad
Being able to hide from other organisms: like the octopus, crocodile, insects or rabbits
OBJECTIVE
Remember the paper airplane you threw in class:

1. What would be a good adaptation for your airplanes to hit a further target?
2. What is an adaptation?
Group Discussion Drill
What's the adaptation?
Camouflage
Adaptation:
Adaptation:
If you look dangerous, other organisms will leave you alone. Like scary insects that are harmless
Fennec Foxes
Adaptation:
Regulate heat
Adaptation:
Conserve water
Adaptation:
Predator & Prey
Find an adaptation:
Create an animal which is going to be strong and resilient enough to survive in that environment.
Create a Creature:


1. Read your given environment options. Don’t open it yet!!

2. Your animal must FIT INTO the existing food chain - it cannot be the ultimate predator (the one which can eat everything else and nothing can eat it).

3. Decide how your animal is adapted to its environment. Fill in the chart and draw your creature.
Create a Creature:
Adaptations
Inherited traits that increase the chance of survival
(Start half way through the clip)
What do we have here?
<< Winter Arctic Hare
Summer Arctic Hare >>
Red Touch Yellow Kills a Fellow
Red Touch Black Venom Lack
Frog
Flounder
Kangaroo
Follow these directions...
Students will:
Identify various adaptations
Create an organism adapted to a given environment

So they can
Predict the how humans would affect your organism
Explain how a force could cause evolutionary change

Human Impact:
Does this look like kangaroos' natural habitat?
Open your scenario card and read it.
Humans have impacted your ecosystem
Answer questions 5-7
Class Discussion:
Why would your animal survive or not?
How would your organism get an adaptation to help them survive?
Trick Question! They have to be born with the adaptation.
Can non-humans keep up with how fast the world is changing?
Explain how does environmental changes cause evolution to happen to your new species?
Make sure you finish answering all the questions. Then turn it in and return the colored pencils. No Homework tonight!
New Student Handouts
Scenarios: Cut in 3, fold and tape it shut
Instagram Evolution:
You will be assigned a evolution term to explain instragram style.
Draw an image, caption it and give it some hashtags!
Terms:
1. absolute carbon dating
2. adaptation
3. analogous structure
4. common ancestor
5. artificial selection
6. homologous structure
7. vestigial structure
8. natural selection
9. variation
10. Darwin
11. evolution
12. extinction


13. transitional forms
14. Speciation
15. convergent evolution
16. coevolution
17. relative dating
18. hierarchy of classification
19. half-life
20. Lamarck
21. Prokaryote
22. fossil
23. Comparative Embryology
Full transcript