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Sports Nutrition

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Kylie O'Donnell

on 28 March 2013

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Transcript of Sports Nutrition

Sports Nutrition Kylie O'Donnell How to play like Mike... What is Sports Nutrition? Fitness - characteristics that enable the body to perform physical activity
Physical activity- bodily movement produced by muscle contractions that substantially increase energy expenditure Whether you're an athlete in training or someone who exercises casually ... It helps you PREPARE & RECOVER from physical activity by telling you:
HOW (the right foods and fluids) & WHEN (the right times) to FUEL THE BODY Why YOU should want to be fit... People who regularly engage in physical activity live longer than those physically inactive
A sedentary lifestyle is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, stroke, diabetes & hypertension
Other benefits... More restful, beneficial sleep
Improved bone density
Stronger circulation & lung function
Lower incidence & severity of anxiety & depression Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Aerobic Physical Activity- the body's large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time

Resistance Exercise- develops muscle strength, power, endurance, and mass

Moderate Intensity Physical Activity- requires some increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends 3.5 to 7 calories per minute

Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity- requires a large increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends more than 7 calories per minute
American Heart Association recommends... At least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity 5 days per week for a total of 150 minutes OR...
At least 25 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity at least 3 days per week for a total of 75; or a combo of the two AND...
Muscle-strength training of moderate to high intensity at least 2 or more days per week Athletes... Must develop strength and endurance... and muscle power... and quick reaction times... and agility.. and resistance to fatigue... and mental toughness. muscle strength: High resistance (heavy weight) with few reps (3-6) muscle power: Moderate resistance (light to medium weight) with high velocity muscle endurance: Less resistance (lighter weights) with more reps (15-20) Resistance Training for... Cardiorespiratory Training Enhances the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood to deliver oxygen to, and remove wastes from, the body's cells. Measure of a person's cardiorespiratory fitness
= VO2 max
the maximum rate of oxygen consumption by an individual Effective Activities Elevate the heart rate
Are sustained longer than 20 minutes
Use most of the large-muscle groups of the body (legs, buttocks, abdomen) THINK FITNESS The blood, arteries, heart, & body tissues respond to exercise in these ways: Blood HDL concentration increases
Muscles of the heart and arteries strengthen and circulation improves, easing delivery of blood to the lungs and tissues
A larger volume of blood is pumped with each heartbeat, reducing the heart's workload
The body grows leaner, reducing overall risk of cardiovascular disease The body needs FUEL Sources Glucose (carbohydrates)
Fatty acids (fats)
Amino acids (protein) During Rest... Roughly 50% of the body's energy comes from fatty acids, most of the rest from glucose, and a little from amino acids Early activity... Majority of energy is from muscle glycogen Continued activity... Epinephrine and norepinephrine signal the liver and fat cells to release their stored energy nutrients- glucose and fatty acids The more carbohydrates you eat = the more glycogen muscles store (up to a limit) = the longer the stores will last to support physical activity. Strategies for Maintaining Blood Glucose 1.) Eat a high-carb diet on a daily basis.
2.) Take in some glucose during activity (usually in sports drinks).
3.) Consume carbohydrate-rich foods within two hours after performance to speed up glycogen storage.
4.) Train the muscles to store as much glycogen as they can- "carbohydrate loading." (only beneficial to endurance athletes who exercises at high intensity over 90 minutes and cannot meet their carb needs during competition. Athlete Carbs (g/kg/day) Male (70 kg) Female (55 kg) Most athletes in training 5-7 350-490 275-385
Endurance athletes 7-10 490-700 385-550
Ultra endurance athletes 10-11 700-770 550-605
Typical U.S. Intake 4-5 280-350 220-275 Sources Sizer, F., & Whitney, E. (2012). Nutrition concepts and controversies. (12 ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Fats Eating a high-fat low carb diet reduces glycogen stores and impairs performance

Muscles will adapt and use more fat as fuel, but there are no benefits to performance

Those eating high-fat diets report increased fatigue

Still, fatty acids are essential & athletes should take in the usual diet of 2--35 percent of calories from fat

Focus foods: raw vegetable oils, nuts, olives, fish, Omega-3 PROTEIN Amino acids from protein are used by the body to build and maintain muscle & other lean tissue, and minimally used to fuel activity. Physical activity stimulates muscle cells to break down and synthesize proteins

For up to two days after physical activity, muscles speed up their rate of protein synthesis

The muscle cells receive signals indicating which proteins are needed to support the type of physical activity

Protein for Athletes Athletes who eat a well balanced, high-carb diet usually get enough protein

Don't need huge meat servings, special foods, or supplements

Ample carbohydrates backup is essential- if not, you will burn off the protein you want to retain in your muscle
Rec0mmendations (g/kg/day) Male (70 kg) Female (55 kg) DRI recomended intake 0.8 56 44
Intake for power athletes 1.2-1.7 84-119 66-94
Intake for endurance athletes 1.2-1.4 84-98 66-77
U.S. Average Intake 102 70 Do I need amino acid or protein supplements? The best source for amino acids and protein is in the food you eat. 1.) Supplements may not provide the ideal balance of amino acids like a well-balanced diet would.

2.) The muscles require just a few grams of amino acids, not heavy doses.

3.) Any overdose of one amino acid can limit the availability of others needed.

4.) Supplements can lead to digestive disturbances or increase fatigue with a buildup of ammonia concentrations. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/StartWalking/American-Heart-Association-Recommendations-for-Physical-Activity-in-Adults_UCM_307976_Article.jsp Vitamins & Minerals More food = more nutrients; if you eat the right foods, you will get the nutrients

Deficiencies do impede performance; athletes forced to "make weight" must be careful to avoid deficiencies

Vitamin E- antioxidant which helps to protect the muscles from oxidative damage by getting rid of free radicals created during physical activity

Best to obtain vitamin E and antioxidants from food sources: vegetable oils, nuts, whole grains, fruits, vegetables Iron Needs Sufficient iron is essential to performance because it delivers oxygen to the working muscles

Young female athletes are at risk for iron deficiency
low-intakes of iron rich food
iron losses through menstruation
high demands of physical performance
should consume: plant foods with meat, poultry, and fish, foods high in Vitamin C

Vegetarian athletes often lack iron
Fiber & phytic acid in plant-based diets inhibits iron absorption
Need to consume: fortified cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds & Vitamin C-rich foods (enhances iron absorption)
Other vegetarian food considerations for protein: eggs, low-fat yogurt and milk, soy

Sports Anemia- low blood hemoglobin early in training
http://www.amssm.org/MemberFiles/FemaleNutrition.pdf http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6442463961 Hydration Endurance athletes can lose more than 1.5 quarts of fluid each hour of activity

Water is the best fluid to support physical activity
enters the tissues rapidly
cools the body from the inside out
Sports drinks have carbs which replenish glycogen stores & electrolytes to rehydrate you

Dehydration- loss of fluids & salts essential to body function
muscle fatigue
loss of coordination
decreased energy and performance
Can tell hydration status from urine color
Before Activity
drink 16-20 fl. oz of water or sports beverage 2-3 hrs before activity
drink 8-12 fl. oz. of water 15 mins before activity
During activity
3-8 fl. oz. of water every 15-20 mins when exercising less than 60 mins
3-8 fl. oz. of sports beverage every 15-20 mins when exercising over 60 mins
After activity
Drink 20-24 fl. oz. of water or sports beverage for every lb. lost
http://www.acsm.org/docs/brochures/selecting-and-effectively-using-hydration-for-fitness.pdf http://www.scandpg.org/local/resources/files/2010/SD-USA-Fact-Sheet_May-2010_Eating-Before-Exercise_aa.pdf Pre-Game Meal 3-4 hours before performance
carbohydrate-rich and light (300-800 calories)
include fluids
low in fat and fiber
peanut butter & banana or PBJ sandwich & instant breakfast drink
fruit and yogurt smoothie w/ low fat granola
oatmeal w/ low fat milk & fruit
apple & peanut butter & crackers
Turkey & cheese, fruit, & sports drink
30-60 minutes before
sports gel or bar
piece of fruit Post-game meal Restore fluids & electrolytes
Replace carbohydrates
Protein to aid in repair of damaged tissues & to start development of new tissues
Snack or meal within 15-60 mins after performance
Carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink for fluid
Smoothie with yogurt & berries
graham crackers w/ peanut butter, low-fat chocolate milk, & banana

Meals for recovery:
whole wheat pita sandwich w/ veggies, pretzels, low-fat milk
rice bowl w/ beans, cheese, salsa, avocado, whole wheat tortilla chips
stir fry w/ lean steak, broccoli, peppers, carrots, & brown rice http://www.scandpg.org/local/resources/files/2010/SD-USA-Fact-Sheet_May-2010_Eating-for-Recovery_aa.pdf
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