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Transcript of Macronutrients
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins. When they are eaten they are broken down into glucose. The glucose is absorbed into the blood stream and it is used for energy. carbohydrates are eaten for energy. Macro-nutrients are needed in large amounts. (macro means big). half of the body's energy source must come from carbohydrates. If there is too many carbohydrates in the body then it is stored in the body as fat. There are three types of carbohydrates; simple, complex and dietary fibre. Complex carbohydrates: These are starchy carbohydrates. The energy from complex carbohydrates is released slowly. Athletes should eat complex carbohydrates before a race because it releases the energy slowly. These take longer to digest than sugars. It is the healthiest source of energy. Simple carbohydrates: These are also known as sugary carbohydrates. The energy from this food is released quickly. There are two types of sugary carbohydrates. the first one is Instrinsic, these are natural sugars. They are from part of the cell structures in some fruit and vegetables. the second type is Extrinsic, these are added sugars. Extrinisic sugars are a quick source of energy. Excess protein in the body is converted into glucose, which is stored in the liver as glycogen. This is then used as a secondary source of energy. Protein is eaten for growth,
maintenance and repair. Dietary Fibre: This is also known as a non-starch
polysaccharide. It is found in the cell structure of most plants. Humans cannot digest fibre by themselves, but it is important in
moving waste material through the body.
Dietary fibre helps to keep the gut healthy and it
prevents health problems such as; constipation. Proteins are made up of long chains
of amino acids. These are also known as indispensable amino acids (you cannot live without them). There are two types of protein; animal proteins and vegetable proteins. Animal proteins: These have a high biological value (HBV). Animal proteins have all the indispensable amino acids in them. Vegetable Proteins: These have a low biological value (LBV). Vegetable proteins lack one or sometimes more of the indispensable amino acids. This is why most people tend to eat meat and vegetables (so they get all the essential amino acids). These are grown from micro-organisms which produce mycoprotein (known as Quorn). It is low in fat, it is a good source of protein for vegetarians. You can also get novel proteins. It also provides a protective layer around delicate internal organs, such as the kidneys. Fat is a supply of energy and
vitamins A, D. E and K. There are two types of fats;
vegetables and animals. Vegetable Fats: these are unsaturated fatty acids, this means they are not converted into cholesterol. Vegetable fats are healthier than animal fats. Animal fats: these are saturated
fatty acids. They are converted into
cholesterol in the liver.
You do need some cholesterol in the
body, however too much can lead to
blocked arteries and heart disease. There are many ways of cutting down on saturated fat. For a start; instead of using
full-fat spread you can use a low-fat one instead. You can cut down on chocolates and sweet treats. And finally cut off the fat on meat.