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Basic First Aid

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by

Ian Drew

on 30 July 2015

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Transcript of Basic First Aid

Calling an Ambulance

Stay Calm – Dial 111

Tell ambulance controller:

Priority Action Plan

Remember the acronym
DRSABCD
...

Recovery Position
For unconscious
casualty’s who are
breathing; to protect the airway - fluids can
drain from the mouth
and tongue will not
fall back and obstruct
the airway
Basic First Aid
FIRST AID
Why we need to know about first aid...
Where it happened

What

has happened

Number of casualties

Any special assistance e.g. power linedown
Give telephone number
& Remember

1.
STAY ON THE PHONE
- DO NOT hang up until the ambulance controller does

2. Have a person meet the ambulance at the road side

t
DANGER
•Look for DANGERS (yourself, the casualty, bystanders) - remove casualty from risk if necessary

RESPONSE
•Check for response - shout and tap on the collarbone


SEND
•Someone to get an Ambulance
(CALL 111)

AIRWAY
•Open Airway - head tilt, chin lift

BREATHING
•Check for breathing - look, listen and feel for breathing
•Yes - place in recovery position
•No - start CPR

CIRCULATION
•Start Compressions (30:2) / Control bleeding

DEFIBRILLATION
•Use AED if needed

Note: Dial 111 for
ambulance in NZ (999 in
this video clip is for the UK)
Unconsciousness

The casualty's response is a measure of their Level of consciousness

A

-
ALERT
and responsive
Talks and responds to questions e.g. What town are you in?
May be anxious, irritable or confused
May start to become drowsy

- Consider calling 111

V
- Drowsy but responds to
VOICE
• Obeys instructions e.g move your arms; open your eyes
• Or responds by grunting, groaning, moving the head or similar

- Consider calling 111

t
Shock
A life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow to the vital organs (brain, heart, lungs etc).
Shock requires immediate medical treatment.
Signs and Symptoms
• Increased heart (pulse) rate
• Pale, cold, clammy, skin
• Possible nausea and vomiting
• Dry mouth and thirst
• Casualty may become confused or agitated
• Casualty may become semi conscious or unconscious
Treatment
• Reassure the casualty
• Rest the casualty. Lie them down and raise the legs
• Loosen any tight clothing
• Try and keep the casualty warm
• Monitor vital signs
t
External Bleeding
With all bleeding the aim of first aid is to stem the flow of blood and minimise the risk of the wound becoming infected
Treatment

Elevate
the injured part above the level of the heart if possible

Apply
a sterile or clean dressing to the wound. Bandage firmly in place
• If the
wound continues to bleed
, leave the original bandage and dressing in place, put a pad on top and apply additional pressure with another bandage

Treat for shock

Seek
medical assistance if the wound is large, dirty or bleeding is severe

Control bleeding by:
Pressure/Elevation/Rest

Pressure
to the area — applied firmly and directly over the wound normally controls the flow of blood

Elevation
of the part — raising the injured area above the heart slows the flow of blood from the wound

Rest
the casualty — keeps the heart rate and blood pressure down

t
Fractures
A fracture is a broken or cracked bone and include:
• Open fractures
• Closed fractures
• Complicated fractures
• Stress fractures
Burns and Scalds
If serious - call ambulance
Cool
• use slow running water until burn area feels to be at normal body temperature
Clear
• take off rings, bracelets and watches etc to reduce swelling
Cover
• pad between fingers and toes
• cover with sterile,
non-fluffy material

Causes

• Medications • Drug overdose
• Occupational exposure
• Insecticides
• Cleaning detergents/paints
• Carbon monoxide gas from furnace, heaters
• Certain cosmetics
• Certain household plants, animals
• Food poisoning

Treatment
Dial 111 for ambulance
• Try and identify the poison if possible and how much was taken. (ring poisons centre if poison known)
• Do not induce vomiting unless advised by doctor etc.
NZ National Poisons Centre - 24 hour poisons advice phone: 0800 764 766
t
Fainting
Fainting occurs due to decreased blood supply to brain. It is usually very brief and may or may not have medical significance
Treatment
If sitting, position head between knees
• Or lie down & elevate feet above head level
• Restore blood flow by loosening clothing/belts/collars
• Patient should become normal within a minute
• If not, seek medical help

Common Causes

• Anxiety, Emotional upset, Stress
• Severe pain, Skipping meals
• Standing up too fast
Standing for a long time in a crowd
• Some medications
Diabetes

t
P
- Unconscious, does not respond to voice, but responds to
PAIN

• Does not speak or respond to instructions

• Moves away from painful stimuli
t
U
-
UNRESPONSIVE
Unconscious

•Does not speak

•Does not respond in any way to pain or voice
t

- Call 111
- Call 111
Treatment

Stabilize only - Stop bleeding first if an open fracture

DON'T MICE:
M
ove patient
I
ce
C
ompress
E
levate
t
Poisons
are substances that cause injury, illness or death. Poisons can be injected, inhaled or swallowed
Full transcript