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The Union in Crisis

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Noelle Toxqui

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of The Union in Crisis

The Union in Crisis
Focus Question: How did the issue of slavery divide the Union?
Slavery and Westward Expansion
After the Mexican-American War
The Road to Disunion
Violence Erupts in Kansas
Lincoln, Secession, and War
The Election Fragments the Nation
Unit 3: Warm Up #2
What were some of the differences between the North and the South?
Industry Grows in the North

-Factories in Northeastern states
-Promoted urban growth
-Most populous region
Cotton Boom in the South

-Agricultural economy relied on slave labor
-Cotton most profitable crop
-Eli Whitney invents cotton gin
Missouri Compromise 1820

Under Henry Clay of Kentucky, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

Missouri was added as a "slave state" & Maine was added as a "free state"

Slavery wasn't supposed to be allowed above the line of demarcation (or that line near Missouri at 36°30')
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Ends the Mexican-American War and results in Mexican Cession
Nullification Crisis 1832

Upset over the tariffs (taxes on imports), South Carolina nullifies them (makes them void)

Congress ends up lowering the tariffs

**Southern States have growing distrust over the federal government**

Issues over if slavery should expand West

Pennsylvania congressmen proposed Wilmot Proviso
-Would have banned slavery from territory won from Mexico

The Wilmot Proviso didn't successfully pass both houses of Congress
New Parties Oppose Slavery
The Wilmot Proviso helped antislavery parties rise

Free-Soil Party
"free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men"
Former President Martin Van Buren ran under Free-Soil Party in 1848
Even though he lost, the party is still important
George Washington 1789-1797 (no party...obvs)
John Adams 1797-1801 (Federalist)
Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 (Democratic Republican)
James Madison 1809-1817 (Democratic Republican)
James Monroe 1817-1825 (Democratic Republican)
John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 (Democratic Republican)
Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 (Democratic)
Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 (Democratic)
William Harrison 1841 (Whig...he died after 32 days)
John Tyler 1841-1845 (Whig)
James Polk 1845-1849 (Democratic)
Zachary Taylor 1849-1850 (Whig...died after 16 mos.)
Millard Fillmore 1850-1853 (Whig)
Franklin Pierce 1853-1857 (Democratic)
James Buchanan 1857-1861 (Democratic)
Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 (Republican)
Congress Tries to Compromise
Compromise of 1850
California would be admitted as a free state
The rest of the territory from the Mexican Cession could decide if they'd allow slavery or not
Known as popular sovereignty
Slavery was now allowed above the 36°30' line
Undid the Missouri Compromise!
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of the Compromise of 1850
Citizens were supposed to stop runaway slaves
**Causes a lot of protest and resistance in the North**
In Northern cities, white and black opponents tried to go against this law
**Inspires Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin**
Quick Write:

How did the Compromise of 1850 lead to conflict between the North and the South?

Get ready to share with a partner! :)
“Have not many of us, in the weary way of life, felt, in some hours, how far easier it were to die than to live?
The martyr, when faced even by a death of bodily anguish and horror, finds in the very terror of his doom a strong stimulant and tonic. There is a vivid excitement, a thrill and fervor, which may carry through any crisis of suffering that is the birth-hour of eternal glory and rest.
But to live, to wear on, day after day, of mean, bitter, low, harassing servitude, every nerve dampened and depressed, every power of feeling gradually smothered, this long and wasting heart-martyrdom, this slow, daily bleeding away of the inward life, drop by drop, hour after hour, this is the true searching test of what there may be in man or woman.”

-Harriet Beecher Stowe in Uncle Tom's Cabin
“Talk of the abuses of slavery! Humbug! The thing itself is the essence of all abuse!”

-Harriet Beecher Stowe in Uncle Tom's Cabin
Warm Up 9/26/13

“What man has nerve to do, man has not nerve to hear.”
-Harriet Beecher Stowe in Uncle Tom's Cabin

Write two to three sentences sharing your thoughts on that quote.
Congress passes
Kansas-Nebraska Act
in 1854
divides Kansas and Nebraska and allows the states to
decide by popular sovereignty if they'd allow slavery

"Bleeding Kansas"
Kansas had two gov'ts
One pro-slavery and one antislavery
Violence between two sides known as "Bleeding Kansas"

was added as a
free state in 1861
Republican Party Emerges
Election of 1856:
Democrat James Buchanan v. Republican John C. Fremont

Republican Party:
Opposed expansion of slavery in west
Made up of abolitionists, businessmen, and opponents of the Fugitive Slave Act
The Dred Scott Decision Inflames the Nation

Dred Scott v. Sandford - 1857
Dred Scott, a slave from Missouri,
tried suing for his own freedom after traveling with his master into free territory
Supreme Court ruled
1) African Americans were not citizens
2) Federal government can't ban slavery in any territory
3) Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional
4) Protects slave owners "property" rights

**Southerners love this....Northerners are outraged**
Lincoln Debates Douglas
Senate race
in Illinois between Republican Abraham
and Democrat Stephen

Douglas wins, but the election is important because:
It highlights slavery issue
The debates help Lincoln gain attention
"There is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness...In the right to eat the bread, without leave of anybody else, which his own hand earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man."
-Abraham Lincoln, debate at Ottawa, Illinois
John Brown Plans a Revolt
John Brown
White abolitionist who wanted slaves to
join a revolution that would end slavery in
the South
Planned a successful attempt to seize arsenal in Harpers Ferry Virginia

His plans for a revolution failed, and he got charged with treason and murder and was hung
He becomes an antislavery hero
Northern support for Brown makes southerners angry
"If it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments-I submit; so let it be done."
-John Brown during his sentencing to be hanged in 1859
Republican: Lincoln
objected slavery and saw the West as a land of opportunity for free white men.
Democrats: Split because of slavery.
Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas
Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge
Constitutional Union: nominated John Bell
Lincoln won by a landslide
40% of popular vote
60% of electoral vote
The South Secedes
Secede = break away
(just write it off to the side in your notes)
No warm up.

Please sit with your partner from yesterday and keep working on your Lincoln-Douglas Debate Worksheet. You guys should be done within 10 minutes.
South felt
like the
North was in charge
of the gov't so the states begin to secede
South Carolina is the first to
(Dec. 1860)
6 states soon join

**Confederate States of America forms**
Form a constitution that a) stresses the independence of each state and b) protects slavery
Soon, 4 more states join
War Begins at Fort Sumter

The Confederacy tried seizing federal military bases in the South
Fort Sumter
in South Carolina, Lincoln told the Confederacy he'd be sending supplies
tried to seize the fort

The Fall of Fort Sumter: April 11, 1861
Union wouldn't give up the fort, so the confederates attacked it
Union surrenders

Write 3-4 sentences summarizing the events that contributed to the cause of the Civil War.
Full transcript