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Polio and Hanta

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on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of Polio and Hanta

Polio: Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis.

Hantavirus: a virus carried by rodents and causing various febrile hemorrhagic diseases, often with kidney damage or failure. It is spherical in shape and carried by arts before infecting humans. It has a virulence level of 4 based on its death toll and mode of transmission.
Symptoms may develop between 1 and 5 weeks after exposure to fresh urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents.
Fatigue, fever and muscle aches, especially in the thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders
headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
4 to 10 days after the initial phase of illness, the late symptoms of HPS appear
coughing and shortness of breath
sensation of, as one put it, a "...tight band around my chest and a pillow over my face" as the lungs fill with fluid.
Historical Prevalence
Polio: It is likely that polio has plagued humans for thousands of years. An Egyptian carving from around 1400 BCE depicts a young man with a leg deformity similar to one caused by polio. Polio circulated in human populations at low levels and appeared to be a relatively uncommon disease for most of the 1800s.

Polio reached epidemic proportions in the early 1900s in countries with relatively high standards of living, at a time when other diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid, and tuberculosis were declining. Indeed, many scientists think that advances in hygiene paradoxically led to an increased incidence of polio. The theory is that in the past, infants were exposed to polio, mainly through contaminated water supplies, at a very young age. Infants’ immune systems, aided by maternal antibodies still circulating in their blood, could quickly defeat poliovirus and then develop lasting immunity to it. However, better sanitary conditions meant that exposure to polio was delayed until later in life, on average, when a child had lost maternal protection and was also more vulnerable to the most severe form of the disease.

One of the most famous cases of polio was our 32nd President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was diagnosed with the disease during the summer of 1921, at the age of 39.

There are two types of vaccine that protect against polio: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). IPV is given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient's age. Polio vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines. Most people should get polio vaccine when they are children. Children get 4 doses of IPV at these ages: 2 months, 4 months, 6-18 months, and a booster dose at 4-6 years. OPV has not been used in the United States since 2000 but is still used in many parts of the world.
One disease to rule them all, and his college roommate
Polio and Hantavirus
Victim Stats/Mortality/Virulence
Modes of Transmission
Short Term
Long Term
Geographical Reach
Nonparalytic Polio:
•Sore throat
•Back pain or stiffness
•Neck pain or stiffness
•Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs
•Muscle weakness or tenderness

Paralytic Polio:

Initial Symptoms Mimic NP Polio, but later move onto...

•Loss of reflexes
•Severe muscle aches or weakness
•Loose and floppy limbs (flaccid paralysis), often worse on one side of the body

Post-Polio Syndrome:
•Progressive muscle or joint weakness and pain
•General fatigue and exhaustion after minimal activity
•Muscle atrophy
•Breathing or swallowing problems
•Sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea
•Decreased tolerance of cold temperatures
•Cognitive problems, such as concentration and memory difficulties
•Depression or mood swings

Effects can last up to Five Years
shortness of breath
anemia, or a low red blood cell count
symptoms mentioned
Polio: Because there is no cure for polio, supportive therapy is the main treatment. Improving a person's chance of recovery is the main goal of treatment

Hantavirus: Intubated ( a tube inserted into a hollow anatomical structure, as the larynx, esp. for admitting air or a fluid) and oxygen therapy to help patients through the period of severe respiratory distress, symptomatic medical treatment and respiratory support or mechanical ventilation
The short term effects of NP Polio are similar to Flu like symptoms.
Symptoms mentioned.
Before the polio vaccine, 13,000 to 20,000 people were paralyzed by polio, and about 1,000 people died from it each year in the United States. Most of those infected were elementary school children so it was often called ‘infantile paralysis.’

The incidence of paralytic polio peaked in the U.S. in 1952 with 21,000 reported cases and numerous deaths. Following licensure of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine in 1955, the incidence of the disease fell dramatically. The disease was further reduced by the advent of the Sabin (oral) polio vaccine in 1961. The last cases of paralytic polio from natural poliovirus in the U.S. were in 1979, and the most recent case from outside the U.S. occurred in 1993.


Eliminate or minimize contact with rodents in your home, workplace, or campsite. If rodents don't find that where you are is a good place for them to be, then you're less likely to come into contact with them. Seal up holes and gaps in your home or garage. Place traps in and around your home to decrease rodent infestation. Clean up any easy-to-get food.

There is No Vaccine for the Hanta Virus.
As of December 31, 2013, 37 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome have been reported in the United States, of which are from 1993 onward, and 31 were retrospectively identified.

36% reported cases have resulted in death. of the people eho get sick, 63% have been male and 37% female.

In 78% of the cases, the patients were white, 18% were Aerican Indians, 2% African American, and1% Asian. 20% have been Hispanic, an Ethnicity, not race.

It has occurred in 34 states, most west of the Mississippi.

Numerous individual cases and small clusters of HPS cases have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama and Uruguay and Venezuela.Large outbreaks have usually been associated with human disturbance and land-use changes or with unusual environmental events.
Polio: Poliovirus is very contagious. The virus lives in an infected person's throat and intestines. It spreads through contact with the feces (stool) of an infected person and through droplets from a sneeze or cough. You can get infected with polio if you have stool on your hands and you touch your mouth.
Hantavirus: Hantavirus can be contracted when an individual comes into contact with infected rodents or their urine, droppings, or saliva.
Hantavirus: In May 1993, an outbreak of an unexplained pulmonary illness occurred in the southwestern United States, in an area shared by Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah known as "The Four Corners". A young, physically fit Navajo man suffering from shortness of breath was rushed to a hospital in New Mexico and died very rapidly. The young man's fiancée had died a few days before after showing similar symptoms. A series of laboratory tests had failed to identify any of the deaths as caused by a known disease. As additional cases of the disease were reported in the Four Corners area, the particular mixture of symptoms and clinical findings pointed researchers away from possible causes and toward some type of virus. Virologists at CDC used several tests and were able to link the pulmonary syndrome with a virus, r a previously unknown type of hantavirus.
95% of people who have polio are completely asymptomatic.
Hantavirus: Worldwide, through rodents. known to be in North America and Europe
Because of widespread vaccination, polio was eliminated from the Western Hemisphere in 1994. Today, it continues to circulate in a handful of countries, with occasional spread to neighboring countries. (Endemic countries are Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan.) Vigorous vaccination programs are being conducted to eliminate these last pockets. Polio vaccination is still recommended worldwide because of the risk of imported cases.
Thank-You For Staying Awake
http://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/ (and links from it)

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