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Science Timeline

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Sofia C

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Science Timeline

In 1753, Joseph Black discovered Carbon dioxide, which he referred to as "fixed air".
Added to the Periodic Table and helped fill the gaps of undiscovered matter
Without this discovery, we might not know what plants need to perform photosynthesis or be this far in science. Sofia Callaghan Chemical Theory Development Timeline Intro Sir Francis Bacon 1561-1626 In the 1620s, Sir Francis Bacon proposed that the best way to gain new understanding in science was through experiments He is responsible for not only the foundations of the scientific method (diagram on right), but also for introducing a new way of approaching and thinking about science We still use the scientific method today, and Bacon's innovative thinking is vital to today's success in science and the development of chemical theory Today, we have a vast knowledge of science. However, it wasn't always that way. There was a time when, if you asked why the sky was blue, there wouldn't have been an answer. But thanks to great scientists from all different time periods, we are not left to wonder. We have the privilege of being able to know. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the great accomplishment of some scientists dating back to the year 1000 and how their accomplishments are important to today's science. Introduced the Electron shell model in 1913
Depicts the atom as a small positively charged nucleus with negatively charged electrons orbiting around it
Introduced the idea that the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus in the outer rim determined a substances properties.
He also proposed that electrons could drop from a higher energy orbit to a low one, while emitting a photon of discrete energy, this became part of the basis for quantum theory Niels Bohr 1913 In 1898, they isolated the elements of radium and polonium
Research on pitchblende and chalcocite suggested that these highly reactive ores were made of undiscovered elements
Pitchblende is made up of about 30 elements and finding two very small fractions of those 30 was not easy, and so the Curies used new methods of chemical analysis in order to find these
Put new elements on the periodic table Marie and Pierre Curie 1898 Discovered Electrons in 1897
Showed that there was something even smaller than an atom, a concept which during this time, was generally dismissed
Lead to a new wave of discovery of sub-atomic particles, and the discovery of the nucleus J.J Thompson 1897 At the beginning of this timeline is the alchemists who searched for a way to turn a variety of metals into gold, as well as a way of prolonging life.
Let's face it, everybody has to start somewhere. Without these first curious scientists, who would have thought up the word science? These people's curiosity lead to all of the stuff we learn in science class today. Along the way to their ultimate goal, these alchemists learned how to use metallic compounds and plant-derived material to medicate illness. In short, these were the people that "got the ball rolling" for science and chemistry. Alchemists Try To Turn Lead to Gold year 1000-1650s Joseph Black 1753 Discovered Hydrogen, which he called "inflammable air"
This discovery was invaluable, as hydrogen makes up much of our universe. It's used in many technologies, for example; in process fossil fuels, find leaks in manufacturing plants, and producing hydrochloric acid (an important chemical in chemistry).
Contributed to the discovery of elements
Cavendish's experiments with hydrogen helped lead to the discovery of what water is made up of. Henry Cavendish 1766 In 1799, named oxygen, proved air was made of different gases and showed that water was a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen
Helped fill the periodic table
Allowed us to know what air was, an important step to learning about the atmosphere
Allowed us to understand what water is made of and introduced new ideas about "the elements" Antoine Lavoisier 1799 John Dalton 1808 Introduced the atom in 1808
Discovery of the atom laid foundations for other discoveries, as the atom is the basic building block of matter and makes up all substances
Makes up the basis of all chemistry
Created the Atomic Theory which stated that all matter was composed of atoms, and that different types of atoms had different properties Focused on Carbon and named it the basis of organic chemistry
This is and important discovery, because all life requires carbon which is why it is called "organic"
Helped us learn that carbon is unique in that it can make long chains with other atoms and combines well with itself
One accomplishment of one german scientists, Friedrich Wöhler, was the accidental creation of urea in the laboratory German Scientists 1830s Discovered catalysts and their part in chemical reactions
Catalysts are important to chemistry because they allow scientists to mix two substances which create a chemical reaction, and then produce two new compounds, without the catalyst being affected.
Catalyst also are used in chemistry to speed up reactions John Berzelius 1836 Earnest Rutherford 1911 Discovered the Nucleus in 1911 through experiments with rays on gold foil
He inferred that a positively charged nucleus existed within the atom
The discovery of the nucleus was a great accomplishment in science, it lead to the discovery of further knowledge about electrons and atoms, cells, and the study of Nuclear Physics James Chadwick 1931 Discovered the neutron in 1931
Allowed scientists to know what makes up for the missing mass of the atom (protons and electrons do not make up the total mass, neutrons had to be discovered)
Lead to the understanding of attractive forces inside the nucleus, that keep neutrons and protons from destroying the atom. (Attractive forces made of Gravitational and Electromagnetic forces)
Inspired scientists such as Enrico Fermi, who discovered the revolutionary first type of nuclear fission
Lead to the invention of the Nuclear Bomb Bibliography "Antoine Lavoisier." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Lavoisier>.

"Atomic Nucleus." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_nucleus>.

"Catalyst." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/catalyst>.

"Chemistry Explained." Henry Cavendish. N.p., n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Bo-Ce/Cavendish-Henry.html>.

"Chemistry Timeline." About.com Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://chemistry.about.com/cs/history/a/aa020204a.htm>.

"James Chadwick." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Chadwick>.

"James Chadwick." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Chadwick>.

"Organic Chemistry." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_chemistry>.

"Justus Von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler." Justus Von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler. N.p., n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-history/themes/molecular-synthesis-structure-and-bonding/liebig-and-wohler.aspx>.

Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://www.wikipedia.org/>.

"Periodic Table Timeline." Periodic Table Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/events-timelines/19-periodic-table-timeline.htm>.

"Atomic Structure Timeline." Atomic Structure Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. Sept. 2012. <http://atomictimeline.net/index.php>. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPTGflQ2OS8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9U4H3WwQq_E YouTube Video (watch atomic theory section at 6:10) Video
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