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WWII Timelines

Timelines for events in Europe and the Pacific during WWII

Jill Phelan

on 14 March 2013

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Transcript of WWII Timelines

Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands August, 1942 - February, 1943 Tarawa, Kiribati November 20-23, 1943 Battle of Leyte Gulf, Philippines December, 1944 Okinawa, Japan April - June, 1945 Hiroshima, Japan August 6, 1945 V-J Day - Nagasaki, Japan August 9, 1945 World War II Timelines By: Jill Phelan D-Day - Normandy, France June 6, 1944 Italy September 1943 - 1944 Sicily July 9 - August 17, 1943 Battle of Kasserine Pass - Tunisia, Africa February 14 - May 13, 1943 V-E Day - Reims, France May 8, 1945 French Morocco, Africa November, 1942 When the Japanese began building an airfield on Guadalcanal, from which they could attack supply routes between the US, Australia and New Zealand, it became vital for the Allies to retake the island. The Guadalcanal Campaign was the first major Allied offensive against Imperial Japan. It consisted of a series of fiercely contested battles at sea, in the air, and on the ground. US Marine and Army troops with little combat experience faced an enemy which hid in the jungle, launched attacks at the dead of night, and obeyed a strict code of honor in which death was preferable to surrender. The outnumbered Japanese defenders were quickly overwhelmed, and the airfield under construction was captured. The struggle for the island concluded in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal: the decisive moment in the Guadalcanal Campaign and a key turning point in the Pacific War. The Allies effectively won their victory in December 1942 when the Japanese abandoned any further attempt to recapture Guadalcanal. US code name "Operation Galvanic" (Tarawa) was the first American offensive in the critical central Pacific region. The 4,500 Japanese defenders were well-supplied and well-prepared, and they fought almost to the last man, exacting a heavy toll on the United States Marine Corps. This was a US victory that the Corps commander said had "no particular strategic importance". It was considered to be the greatest sea battle of all time. 70 Japanese warships and 716 planes faced 160 American warships and 1,280 planes. The U.S. annihilates the Japanese fleet with the use of Kamikaze ("divine wind") psychological warfare. The Japanese allow the U.S. to land, but then retreat south. Five days later, the Japanese attack. It became known as the bloodiest battle of the Pacific with 100,000 Japanese casualties and 49,000 American casualties. It was an 82 day battle nicknamed the "Typhoon of Steel". The second of the two atomic bombs, the "Fat Man" killed between 60,000 and 80,000 people. Six days later on August 15th, Japan announced its surrender and the Allies claimed victory. After the death of FDR, the Manhattan project begins to create nuclear weapons. Among these are two bombs that will be used to attack Japan in an effort to make them surrender. Truman gives orders for the plane "Enola Gay" to drop the first nuclear bomb named "Little Boy" on Hiroshima. Despite killing between 90,000 and 166,000 people, the Japanese do not quit. On November 8, 1942, Italio-German forces invade the "underbelly of Europe" as said by Churchill. German victory would bring the Axis powers within 1,600 miles of the Western hemisphere. Allied troops later land in Casablanca, Morocco and Algiers, Algeria. Erwin Rommel, "The Desert Fox" from the Afrika Korps, led the Axis forces at the Kasserine Pass. The Germans initially destroy the inexperienced Americans. The U.S. invasion creates a "two-front" war for Rommel: U.S. from the West, Great Britain from the East. The Allies claim victory; 275,000 Germans surrender and the others retreat to Italy. The Allies drive the Axis air, land, and naval forces from the island in "Operation Husky" and the Mediterranean's sea lanes are reopened. Italian dictator Benito Mussolini is toppled from power which allows the Allies to invade Italy. The invasion task lasts for 38 days. The battle in Italy was a slow process with tough conditions and rugged mountains. The goal of this mission was to open the Mediterranean and secure a foothold in Europe. No campaign in Western Europe cost more than the Italian campaign in terms of lives lost and wounds suffered by infantry forces. Overall, the Allied forces prevailed. Also known as "Operation Overlord", D-Day was the largest water invasion in history. The operation served as a funnel inland to propel men and materials toward the enemy. This was achieved by creating a hole at the rear of the German army. Hitler believed this attack was a feint. After Hitler fails at his last chance at victory, he commits suicide on April 30th. With this, Germany signs the unconditional surrender at Rheims on May 7th later ratified at Berlin on May 8th. Victory goes to the Ally forces.
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