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Long-Term (Acute) Effects of Exercise (P1, P2)
Transcript of Long-Term (Acute) Effects of Exercise (P1, P2)
ATP System - After training for long periods of time your ATP system works alot more efficiantly and goes up from around a 10 second duration to 12-15 second duration depending on how long you have been training. Also the recovery time of this system will reduce.
Lactic acid system - This system will imrpove in the same way it will go from about a 45 second duration up to around a minute and a half or more. Your lactic acid tolerance will also increase so it wont cause as much discomfort when there is lactic acid left in your muscles.
Aerobic System - This system will become more efficiant by letting you run faster while using this aerobic energy, and mitochondria will increase and also become more efficiant. There are a lot of big changes that occur in long term effects on the cardiovascular system a big change is that the body will produce more red blood cells and more hemoglobin. This will increase the amount of oxygen being pumped around your body to your muscles at once. Which means the muscles will have more energy to use during exercise which leads to more powerful muscles.
Another effect is that the cardiac muscles increase in size which means the heart pumps harder and faster during exercise. This means that during exercise muscles get more oxygen pumped to them which means more energy. So the whole system improves.
another effect is that our maximum heart rate increase which means we can supply oxygenated blood faster to muscles, this also links with our cardiac output increasing which is how much blood our heart pumps out in one beat, this will mean more oxygen in our muscles.
Also our resting heart rate will decrease from long term exercise because the cardiovascular system will be more developed so it wont have to work as hard when resting. It will also recover faster from exercise. For example an olympic athlete in a 200M sprint will recover to resting heart rates much quicker then an average person running 200M since their system is a lot more efficient.
Our blood vessels will also develop and become wider to allow more blood flow through them which means more oyxgen rich blood getting to our muscles, this will make our blood pressure decrease which is good for athletes. There are a lot of effects that happen to this system in long term exercise. The main one being that our muscle size and density increases and as this increases so will our strength, and our muscle contractions will be a lot more powerful.
Another effect is that our bones will become stronger since they will be dealing with a lot more stress because as muscle size increases you will be able to lift greater weights and put more stress on your bones. So the bone tissue develops to become stronger which is why professional athletes don't fracture or break bones very often.
Another change that happens in the muscles is that the amount of mitochondria increases and they also become more efficient so they can take in more oxygen at once which means they can release ATP faster and much more efficiently.
Other effects are that ligaments and tendons become stronger and more flexible. They are the connective tissue which connects muscle to muscle and muscle to bone and exercise makes them stronger making them less likely to become injured but also enable professional athletes to be more flexible giving them a wider range of movement which can be very important in sports that require high agility levels. This also links with our joints becoming more stable because the tendons and ligaments are stronger.
Our nervous system will also become faster which means better reactions, this would be very important in the beggining of a race where athletes wait for the signal to go. Regular training effects our respiratory system in a few ways one being that muscles will be more efficient. Vital capacity will increase because muscles will need more oxygen, so the breathing rate increases and makes the heart and lungs work harder, but they are more efficient from regular training.
Other effects are that gaseous exchange becomes a lot more efficient, this is due to changes in our lungs. One of the main changes in the lungs is that there will be more alveoli which are the parts of the lungs were gas exchange takes place. Also blood capillaries surrounding the alveoli to absorb oxygen and let out carbon dioxide increase is size which increases the surface area of them so they absorb more oxygen and let out more carbon dioxide at once.
Another effect is that our respiratory muscles, (our diaphragm and intercostals muscles) will increase in strength. This means our lungs will be more efficient as our diaphragm will be able to stretch more to allow our lungs to expand more and we will be able to release carbon dioxide faster since the diaphragm can push the air out our lungs faster. This means our tidal volume increases which is how much air we take in with each breath. and also our breathing rate will increase because our diaphragm is better.