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Transcript of NGOs_Maria
Service providers and knowledge generators
History of NGOs
until late 60's
until late 70's
80s until today
First Period - until late 60's
Roots of NGOs in missionaries of colonial time
NGOs still linked to religious movements or philanthropist
Third Period - 80's til today
State failures and neoliberal agenda enhance growing of NGO sector
Financed by own government
Lowers the incentives for NGOs to pressure the government for innovations and improvements in governing
Financed by "traditional donors"
Adapt conditionality, neoliberal agenda, security agenda, bureaucracy ...
Financed by private market entities
Adapt features of private market economy and lose social component
Instruments for geopolitical interests (cold war)
Second Period - until late 70's
First collaboration between INGOs & LNGOs
Criticism on NGOs
"means the north"
NGOs lose comparative
Instrument for covering
up less social purposes
What happens with NNGOs after finishing the training of the staff of SNGOs?
What happens with NNGOs when donors start direct funding of SNGOs?
What happens with development NGOs, which promote democracy, when autocratic governments have fallen?
Several millions of national NGOs
Approx. 40.000 international NGOs
Financed through private donations and government grants
Circa 20% of ODA channeled to or through NGOs
“The term "non-governmental organisations (NGOs)" basically covers all associations or groups which are independent of government or state bodies and have a common interest, without themselves pursuing commercial interests – from trade unions to churches to sports clubs. The term is, however, generally used to mean organisations, associations and groups working to achieve socio-political goals. Some typical and important fields of NGO activities include development, the environment and human rights.” (BMZ)
What about NGOs?
Northern NGOs vs.
Environmental NGOs Human rights NGOs
According to activities:
public relations, project managment
NGO Simulation Game
pre-school education is vital
communities should develop to take control of their own affairs
to assist community groups involved with child care
independent community-based organisations
Members of the Board
Level of operation
Level of orientation
(community development workers) who work directly with community groups
lobby for more resources to be given to early childhood education
lobby for the government to adopt the model of community-based organisation (rather than state-run centres) which your NGO is promoting
based at the NGO's
offices who run training programmes for teachers and committee members.
funded by foreign donors
assessment of effectiveness by stressing the number of:
training courses run
trainees who have attended
community-based centres which your NGO services
particular donor made exception subsequently withdrew their funding because of bad impression
because of that another major donor is about to pay your NGO a visit
at the same time a national conference on ECE is being organised by your NGO
NGO Staff Meeting
8 Trainers (2x4)
10 Fieldworkers (2x5)
2 Members of the Board
1. Facts & Figures
2. Historical Background
4. Simulation Game
The world of NGOs
by Maria Heuschkel, Anna Letter & Christian Jakubassa
to take place in the near future:
Center for Developmental Practice: The NGO as a unique organisational type. Online accessable: www.cdra.org.za/.../Thinkingaboutdevelopment/The%20NGO%20as%2...
Eade, Deborah (Ed.) (2000): Development, NGOs and Civil Society. Oxford: Oxfam GB.
Fowler, Alan (2000): NGO futures: beyond aid: NGDO values and the fourth position. In Third World Quaterly 4 (21), pp. 589–603.
Lewis, David (1998): Development NGOs and the Challenge of Partnership. Changing Relations between North and South. In Social Policy & Administration 5 (32), pp. 501–512.
Manji, Firoze; O'Coill, Carl (2002): The missionary position: NGOs and development in Africa. In International Affairs 3 (78), pp. 567–583.
Mitlin, Diana; Hickey, Sam; Bebbington, Anthony (2007): Reclaiming Development? NGOs and the Challenge of Alternatives. In World Development 10 (35), pp. 1699–1720.
Shivji, Issa G. (2007): The silence in NGO discourse: The Role and Futures of NGOs in Africa. Fahamu. Nairobi & Oxford.