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G322 Textual Analysis: Intro to Editing
Transcript of G322 Textual Analysis: Intro to Editing
ALL STUDENTS : Understand the mark scheme
ALL STUDENTS : Understand how to effectively analyse editing techniques
SOME STUDENTS: Show Level 4 analysis of editing and link to representation.
RECAP: What can you remember?
How long is the whole exam?
What is included in Section A?
What is included in Section B?
How long should you spend on each section?
What am I being marked on?
Editing & Representation
s a technical code, editing is primarily related to narrative, and many students struggle to make connections between editing and representation.
The next few slides are designed to help you start thinking about how editing can, if sometimes subtly, influence the audience’s reading of a character, and lead on to wider questions of representation.
However, before working your way through the rest of this presentation, watch the following video with the aim of improving your knowledge and understanding of how varying editing techniques are used to create specific meanings and representations.
Eyeline match usually provides insight to a characters’ private thoughts and could also be used to show relationships between that character and others in the scene.
Task 1: At the beginning of the extract when Martha enters the room, What do the eyeline matches denote/connotate to audiences about Martha and her relationships with others?
Task 2: How is eyeline as a tool of editing used to establish a contrast between varying representations of gender?
What are you being marked on?
What 4 bullet points are in the question?
What must you link these bullet points to?
What types of representation could they ask you about?
How many times do you watch the extract?
How should you plan your answer?
How long do you have to PLAN and WRITE your answer?
Although typically a narrative device, parallel editing can set up
between parallel storylines,
exaggerating the impact or meaning of each by highlighting a point of difference.
As a editing technique,parallel editing can also heighten the contrasts between varying representations in two different situations.
Task 1: How is the
match on action and intercutting used effectively?
What juxtapositioning is being offered and what contrasting representations of status are we being offered?
PARALLEL EDITING (2)
Parallel editing can ALSO be used to draw two storylines together. This can be structured to create tension, and therefore heighten the audience’s identification with a particular character.
Analyze the following clip and draw up a short list of ways in which ethnicity is being represented.
How is parallel editing used in the extract to help construct and contrast specific representations of ethnicity?
Jump cuts are rarely used in TV or film; when they are, they tend to suggest chaos and disorder / strained state of mind
What effect is created here by the jump cut? What are we made to think about gender?
A motivated edit is any transition forced on the editor by the development of the action, narrative or character.
Whenever shot (a) refers to the existence of an event outside the frame, and we then cut to (b) which shows that event, that’s a motivated edit.
We can sometimes judge a character’s worth or importance by the number of cuts they motivate.
Task 1: Analyze
the opening few minutes of the extract opposite. What do you consider to be some of the obvious difference in gender representations?
Which gender appears to generate the greater number of motivation shots and how does it fit with your initial ideas as the contrast in gender representations?
PACE OF EDITING
& CUTTING RYTHMN
This can imply character qualities, especially if only one or two characters are in the sequence. A fast pace might suggest energy or panic (depending on context) while infrequent cuts (long takes) might suggest calm, a casual attitude, or provide documentary-style realism. Similar effects can be achieved with speed ramping and slow-motion.
Study the extract Fingersmith- What are some of the differences between how homosexuality and heterosexuality is represented? How is the pace of editing combined with varying other film techniques, used in the extract to help construct specific specific representations
representation of sexuality)
How much screen time does a character get? The more time we see them on screen, the more important their role. This can develop during a scene to change character’s status.
Task 1: Who gets the most time in this scene and why?
What does the director want us to think about class/status?
SHOT / REVERSE SHOTS and REACTION SHOTS
S/RS indicates the relationship between two characters: it signifies and sometimes exaggerates their closeness or their opposition. The amount of time given to a character’s reaction shots can convey their status in the scene. For example, if two characters are in S/RS conversation, do they get equal screen time, or do we spend more time looking at one character, speaking and reacting?
Equally (though this is also a function of camera, are the two characters framed equally?
e.g.: in Doctor Who, the S/RS between Martha and the Master makes Martha seem of a greater status as a character, even if narratively she appears defeated.
Final Word: James Baker (OCR Assistant Principal Examiner G322) writes:
One approach to both sound and editing is to look at the way in which technical elements are used to create perspective or viewpoint within a sequence - a key element of the process of representation that goes beyond the identification of 'character traits'.
By understanding, for example,
how screen time, p.o.v. or reaction shots are distributed, even weaker students can see how hierarchies are established,
leading to certain representations being privileged where others are marginalised.
Stronger students are able to develop this further by discussing how the audience is positioned in relation to the representations on offer.
Another important factor is the way that the editing of the sequence grants or witholds narrative information from the audience in order to encourage identification or rejection of particular characters/representations.
PT2 REVERSE SHOTS
: Make a list of some of the varying ways in which age is being represented in the representations in the extract below?
: Combined with other film techniques, discuss how reaction and reverse shots are effectively used, to construct specific representations of age?