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Transcript of Body
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Paying attention to information representing it mentally, reasoning about it and making judgements and decisions about it
Thinking refers to build conscious and plan attempts to make sense of the world
We process information given:
act upon it through judgement and decision
Those actions are executed solely on our own intent
* Communication by non-humans
A language is a system of symbols along with rules that are used to manipulate the symbols. Symbols such as word stand for or represent other objects, events, or ideas.
Chimpanzees are our closest genetic relatives, sharing an estimated 98.42%of their genetic code with humans.MRI studies with chimpanzees and gorillas show that most of them, like how humans ,show enlargement in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, in part of broca’s area shown on figure 8.2
Although apes do not speak, they have been taught to use American Sign Language and other symbol system .A chimpanzee named washoe, who was a pioneer in the effort to teach apes to use language was using 181 signs by the age of thirty-two.
Sue Savager-Rumbaugh and her Colleagues believe that pygmy chimpanzees can understand some of the somatic subtleties of language .She claims that one chimp, Kanzi picked up language from observing another chimp being trained and has the grammatical abilities of a two and a half year old child .Kanzi held a toy snake to a toys dog’s mouth when asked to make the dog bite the snake.
Scientist will continue to debate how well chimpanzees and gorillas understand and produce language, but there is little doubt that they have learned to use symbols to communicate.
Concepts are a network of objects, relations, abstract,
visions, and events
Concept is the representation of "I" in the "now" personally and socially
- The view that language learning involves an interaction between environmental factors and an inborn tendency to acquire language.
Language acquisition device
- for short (LAD)Psycholinguistic theory, neural “prewiring” that facilities the child’s learning of grammar.
- A complex and controversial concept; according to understand the world. Resourcefulness to cope with its challenges.
- awareness of one’s own inner feelings and sensitivity to other people’s feelings.
- The ability to look at natural events, such as animals plants and stars (nature).
Differences Between creativity, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking.
Creativity - Ability ti generate novel and useful solution to problems.
Convergent- thought process that narrows one single solution to problem.
Divergent- Thought process attempts to generate multiple solutions.
Theories Of Intelligence
Psychologist engaged studies and development theories to help understand it better.
Verbal, Reasoning, Numerical ability, Word fluency, Associative memory, Spatial visualization
Factors and Theories
Intelligence is made up of a number of mental abilities
Assigned (g) and (s)
(g) General intelligence is broad reasoning and problem solving
(s) Individual abilities
The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner proposes multiple intelligence. Two of which language ability and logical – mathematical ability. Also refers to Kinetic talents shown by dancers/athletes also musical talents, spiritual and relation skills.
The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Its problem solving skills include encoding information, combining and comparing bits of info and generating a solution. It enables people to deal with other people, including difficult people, and to meet the demands of their environment.
Resembles intrapersonal skills (including insight into the feelings of other people. It involves self-insight and self-control. The abilities to recognize and regulate ones moods.
Creativity of Intelligence
Like the concept of intelligence, the concept of creativity is hard to define. Basically they both overlap.
Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale
The Stanford Binet was brought up in the early 20th century in the public school systems identifying children who were unlikely to benefit in a regular classroom. Dealing with mental age, that shows the intellectual at which is functioning intellectually.
Genetic Influences on Intelligence
-closely related people have more similar IQs then distantly related or unrelated people, even if they are
• Bouchard 1990- IQs of identical twins are more alike than any other pairs
• Wilson 1983- Found that correlations in intelligence for identical twins were higher than
those of fraternal twins. The correlations between fraternal twins were the same as
correlations between siblings.
• The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study- In 20, 14 month old pairs of twins, identical
twins were more similar than nocturnal twins in spatial memory, ability to categorize
things, and word comprehension.
• Several studies with one and two year old children found a stronger relationship
between the IQ scores of adopted children and those of their biological parents than
between the children’s scores and those of their adoptive parents.
Environmental Influences on Intelligence
-The Home Environment
• Children of parents who are emotionally and verbally responsice, furnish appropriate play
materials, are involved with their children, encourage independence, and provide varied daily
experiences obtain higher IQ scores.
• Preschool and other head start programs have led to intellectual gains.
• Graduates of preschool programs are less likely to be held back or placed in classes for slow
learners and more likely to graduate from high school, go on to college, and earn higher
-The Flynn Effect
• Philosopher John Glynn found that IQ scores in the Western world increased 18 points in the
• Psychologist Richard Nisbett argued that our genetic codes could not possibly have changed
enough in half a century to account for this enormous difference.
• Believed that social and cultural factors such as improved educational systems and mass media
must be among the changes.
Differences in Intellectual Functioning
The average IQ score in the United States is close to 100 some may be higher for others and lower.
*Lower class U. S children obtain scores 10 - 15 points lower than those obtained by middle and upper class children.
*African Americans children obtain 15 points lower
*African Americans, Latino and Latina Americans are found among the lower socioeconomic classes.
*Asian Americans outscore European Americans on the math portion in the SAT's
If we define language simply as a system of communication many
animals have language, including birds and the bees.
Like chirps and shrieks, birds may communicate that they have taken possession of a tree or bush
The communication of thoughts and feelings by means of symbols that are arranged according to rules of grammar.
True language is distinguished from the communication system of lower animals by properties such as semanticity, infinite creativity, and displacement
Semanticity: the sounds of a language have meaning words serve as symbols for actions, objects, relational concepts, and other ideas. The communication systems of the birds and the bees lack semanticity.
Infinite creativity: The capacity to create rather than imitate sentence.
Displacement: The capacity to communicate info about events and objects in another time or place. Language makes it possible to transmit knowledge from one person to another and from one generation to another, furthering human adaptation.
What is language?
Language and cognition
relationships between language and thinking are complex and not always obvious.
Jean Piaget-Believed that language reflects knowledge of the world but that much knowledge can be acquired without language.
For example it is possible to understand the concepts of roundness even when we do not know or use the words round or red.
*- Language and culture
Language has different words for the same concepts, and concepts do not necessarily overlap.
Linguistic relativity Hypothesis was proposed by Benjamin Whorf. Whorf believed that language structures the way we perceive the world.
People who use only a few words to distinguish among colors seem to perceive the same color variations as people with more words.
Language development: The Two year explosion
Languages around the world develop in a specific sequence of steps, beginning with paralinguistic vocalizations of crying, cooing, and babbling.
By the fifth or sixth month, children begin to babble.
By the age of nine or ten months they are repeating the sounds regularly, and foreign sounds are dropping out.
Children tend to utter their first word at about one year of age.
The growth of vocabulary is slow at first. It may take children three to four months to achieve a ten word vocabulary after they have spoken their first word.
The researcher of children’s development , Elizabeth bates noted that sign language “has to do with how easily one can imitate and reproduce something with a great big fat hand as opposed to the mini ,delicate hundreds of muscles that control the tongue... you can also see somebody using a hand, which you can’t do with a tongue .”
Toward the end of the second year, children begin to speak two word sentences. These sentences are termed telegraphic speech, because they resemble telegrams.
there are different kinds of two word utterances; contain nouns or pronouns and verbs. Others contain verbs and objects.
overregularization is important development for understanding the roles of nature and nurture in language development. Children learn irregular verbs and nouns by imitating older people.
For example Look becomes looked and child becomes children.
Age six children’s vocabularies have expanded to100,000 words
Nature and nurture in language development
Language development, like many other areas of development, apparently reflected the interactions between nature and nurture.
Children learn language at least in part through observation and imitation. Children initially repeat the irregular verb forms they have heard accurately.
Psycholinguistic theory involves the interaction of environmental influences –such as exposure to parental speech and reinforcement
language acquisition (LAD) found in the universality of human language. LAD prepares the nervous system to learn grammar.
language development particularly vocabulary development strongly related to intelligences
Sensitive periods: begin at about eighteen to twenty-four months and last until puberty.
Evidence for sensitive periods is found in recovery from brain injuries in some people
-intelligence test evaluate reasoning through the child's ability to understand and use the rules.
-once widely believed that males were more intelligent than be mailed because of the greater knowledge of the world affairs and their skills and science and industry
-Do males and females differ and intellectual functioning's?
-girls acquire language faster than boys do also more boys have reading problems ranging from reading grade level to severe disabilities
-males know how to manipulate be easier with visual images and working memory
Differences in Intellectual Functioning Cont.
3 features to understanding problems
picturing your problem (ex. Geometry problem)
corresponding elements of outside world (ex. finding a diagnosis by taking vital signs and temperature etc.)
Background knowledge (ex. previous experience with related problems)
-a specific procedure for solving a type of problem; leads to solution.
-a scrambled word in order to reorganize groups of letters to create words.
Understanding Problems Cont.
-rules of thumb that help us simplify and solve problems
solve a problem by evaluating the difference between the current situation and the goal.
a partial similarity among things that are different in other ways.
Understanding Problems Cont.
Factors that affect problem-solving
Level of expertise (ex. knowing the area well, relating problems to similar problems, and having efficient way to solve problems)
mental set (ex. approaching a new problem with similarities of an old problem)
developing insight (ex. pg 167)
Close all your books get into your groups and get ready for a pop quiz !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!