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Transcript of Bioethics
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb of a fetus or embryo before it has obtained the ability to survive on its own.
Genetically Modified Organisms
A GMO is an organism or microorganism whose genetic material has been altered by means of genetic engineering.
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What are Bioethics?
Bioethics are standards in scientific testing set forth in each country.
Bioethics are controversial as they are always changing and adapting due to advances in fields like biology and medicine.
What is the Issue and why does it Exist?
The issue exists due to advances in science and medicine.
Where in the World Does it Exist?
This issue exists globally as it adheres to all citizens who use medicine, beauty products or anything that has developed from science.
Why is the Issue Problematic?
Transgenesis is the introduction of an exogenous gene into a living organism so that the organism will exhibit a new property and transmit that property to its young.
This issue is problematic as it addresses whether it is ethical to test on humans and/or animals. Many people have varying views on what the basis should be for science testing. Some think animals should be tested only, some say humans should be tested.
What are the current and/or future consequenes of not addressing this issue?
If we do not address this problem soon, then humans who are captured in war could be put in facilities and tested on mercilessly.
What would it take to fix this issue?
To fix this problem, we must all band together a world and agree on what is humane and what is not. We would also have to set an extreme discipline policy as to prevent anyone from breaking these laws that we so carefully established.
What can high school students do to help solve this issue?
Raise awareness to the arguments and discussions going on.
What Disscusion is There?
GMO has multiple pros and cons that are constantly argued over.
Harmful or Helpful?
GMO is Produced in Many Places...
Most of the European Union
What is Wrong with the Issue?
GMO causes many issues but people are also critisizing it as well as protesting against it.
Have you ever heard of a Chimera?
A chimera used to be a fictional beast with the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a snake.
Transgenics and genetic engineering go hand in hand.
Transgenics involves changing an item of our enviroment, plant or animal, to do something different than what it normally does, usually for our benefit.
Now, a chimera is simply defined as ananimal created artificially by combining genetc material from two or more organisms into a single species.
Did You Know...
Some time in the 16th century, were selectively bred by a Dutch horticulturist for their orange color. It is to be believed that carrots were originally white or purple with thin roots. A mutation occured which removed the purple pigment producing a yellow carrot.
"A tale, probably apocryphal, has it that the orange carrot was specifically bred in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century to honour William of Orange." (carrotmuseum.co.uk)
Capital punishment is the legal execution of an accused person. It is considered morally wrong because it violates the right to life and is considered cruel and unusual punishment.
Currently, many people are arguing and fighting with the companies who create genetically modified organisms.
Who will have access to these technologies and resources?
How will they be allocated?
What research in genetic engineering should be considered morally impermissible and banned (ex. research undertaken for purely offensive military purposes)?
Are chimeras and transgenics more likely to suffer than “traditional” organisms?
Are there long-term effects on the environment when transgenic or genetically modified organized are released in the field?
Should research be limited and, if so, how should the limits be decided?
How should the limits be enforced nationally and internationally?
What unintended personal, social, and cultural consequences could result?
Advances in biotechnology could be beneficil to humans (ex. regrow a lost limb).
Modifying food could allow us to intake healthier, more nutritious foods in smaller amounts.
Genetically modified plants could have abilities to fight off dieases, make an area smog free, or provide illumination at night time.
Animals could live longer, awesomer lives.
Humans could be granted properties like flying, faster swimming, climbing, and more.
Transgenics is the future.
Currently, getting an animal to change its normal genetics is difficult. We are still trying to luck out that its the perfect change. In the future, we will most likely make the selection process more effective, but for now, its slow and we are still developing technologies.
How can we solve this issue as high school students?
As a student, currently the best thing we can do to prepare for is issue is to become more knowledgeable about the topic. This topic is vast and with the advancements in technology, it will be ever changing.
*Do not choose a side until you become an expert in that topic.
We all know, the day will eventually come for scientists to stumble upon a creature that is able to speak and reason. The question is, do we give it rights like we would a normal human being. Or do we limit it's rights and treat it as inferior. The problem is, it could eventually rise up into power and enslave us all.
What Foods are we Eating that are Genetically Engineered?
The movie "Rise of the Planet of the Apes" suggets this point.
1) What is transgenics?
2) What were the original colors of carrots?
3) Name three negative issues of Genetic Engineering. Name one positive.
4) What is a chimera (genetic definition)
Answers for Transgenics Quick Quiz
1) The introductin of an exogenous gene into a living organism so that the organism will exhibit a new property and transmit that property to its young.
2) White or Purple
3) Answers may vary
4) Created artificially by combining genetc meaterial from two or more organisms into a single species.
Fruit and vegetables keep longer
Plants grow bigger and faster
Healthier and stronger animals
Less harmful pesticides
Hard to tell what long term effects are from consumption
Could have bad effects on curtain species from cross breeding
Could cause bad bacteria to be harder to kill
Some people think it's unethical to alter natural things
Milk Eggs Cheese
Rules & Regulations
Three federal agencies are responsible for evalutating new crop varieties developed using GE:
FDA - evaluates food and feed safety aspects
USDA - ensures agricultural and environmental safety
EPA evaluates food safety and environmental issues associated with new pesticides and uses
All GE-derived food and feed crops need to be sent to the FDA for a "consultation."
Then it can be approved.
GMOs = Serious Business
People are not allowed to simply make as many GMOs as they please.
Genetic engineering is serious business. By introducing GMOs, we have essentially created a new plant that would not have developed on its own. It is not natural and could harm other native organisms if not supervised properly.
How to Gain Nonregulated Status for a GMO
The USDA requires molecular, biochemical, and cellular characterization of the GE plant,along with data on the life cycle, reproductive characteristics, and any expected or unexpected changes from nonengineered plants of the same species.
1) What are three foods that are genetically modified?
2) Why do people protest against GMOs?
3) Name three negative points about GMOs. Name one positive.
4) Are there regulations in place? If yes name one or two.
Answers for GMOs Quick Quiz
1) Answers may vary
2) People protest due to a varying of reasons. Some think GMOs are unethical as they alter nature, some just think it is very unhealthy
3) Answers may vary
4) Yes, answers may vary
Why is abortion so controversial?
Capital Punishment in the US
32 states in the U.S. allow the death penalty
for listening to our presentation and taking part in the activities!
Why does this issue exist?
Methods of Captial Punishment
Abortion is an extremely controversial issue. It is considered unethical by many people because by some standards the zygote starts living 18 days after conception, this then turns abortion into infanticide which is the killing of an infant. others say that the infant can not survive on its own outside the womb so therefore may be terminated.
This form of punishment supposedly began with one of the rules from Hammurabi's Code: "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth"
Why is this issue controversial?
Over 1,000 of the 14,000 people that have died from captial punishment have been claimed innocent after their death
Abortion is the Choice of the People
One side of the abortion argument is that the person who wants to terminate the fetus should be able to consult their doctor and have an abortion as long as the fetus is under the age at which it can survive on its own.This side of the argument is generally labeled pro choice.
Electrocution started in 1907 when the first electric chair was invented
It was considered a more humane way at the time because it was thought to be less painful and quicker than hanging
Even though it was once the most widely used method in the US it started to be proven that it was tortuous
Nowadays the electric chair is only an option in 8 states
Capital Punishment in the World
60 countries still allow the death penalty
118 countries have abolished this form of punishment
7 countries have outlawed capital punishment for "odinary crimes"
The crime rate hasn't decreased
It doesn't teach the accused person anything
It's considered cruel and unusual punishment
This method of execution consists of people shooting at a criminal who is strapped to a chair
Only used in Utah and Oklahoma
It's used in Utah for those who choose this option
Oklahoma uses it only if lethal injection and electrocution are ruled unconstitutional
Inmates are put in a chamber of hydrogen cyanide gas
Only legal in 3 states: Arizona, Missouri, and Wyoming; Wyoming only uses this method if lethal injection is ruled unconstitutional
According to former San Quenton, California, Penitentiary warden, Clifton Duffy, "At first there is evidence of extreme horror, pain, and strangling. The eyes pop. The skin turns purple and the victim begins to drool."
Most commonly used in the US
Strapped to gurney and anesthetics are given and then chemicals are injected into the inmate's arm which stops all of the body's processes
All 32 states use this method
NACDP (NATIONAL COALITION TO
ABOLISH THE DEATH PENALTY)
Religious organization that is trying to abolish capital punishment
Next execution: Chadwick Banks is scheduled to be executed on November 13
The Abortion Pill
You can take the Abortion Pill if it is an early pregnancy which is a safe and effective method.
An in-clinic abortion is able to be performed up to 14 weeks after pregnancy before extra planning is needed.
The opposing side of the abortion controversy believes that almost as soon as a child is concieved it gains Human Rights and therefore can't be terminated
Reasons for Abortion
Not financially prepared for a baby
Not prepared for the responsibility of a child
Concerns about changes in life style
Has problems with a relationship
Too immature or young to have a baby
What are the two types of abortion?
What is a common reason for abortions?
What is the appropriate time to take the Abortion Pill?
The Abortion Pill
Any of the reasons