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Chapter 8: Reforming American Society
Transcript of Chapter 8: Reforming American Society
system in which manufacturers provided the material for goods to be manufactured at home.
In the early 19th century, artisans made goods that a family could not make for itself.
The most experienced artisans were called
There were assisted by journeymen-skilled workers employed by the masters.
were young workers learning the craft.
Industry Changes Work
Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to graduate from medical college.
She then opened a hospital for women.
Social customs required women to restrict themselves to caring for the house.
This idea became known as the
cult of domesticity
Despite such limits, many women actively participated in the important reform movements of the nineteenth century.
Sarah and Angelina Grimké
for the abolition of slavery.
Mary Vaughn attested to the evils
Temperance movement-movement to ban the drinking
Women’s Roles in the Mid 1800s
Despite the controversy surrounding slavery, many Southerners defended it.
They argued that slavery benefited blacks by introducing them to Christianity.
Southerners also invented the myth of the happy slave-a beloved member of the plantation family.
Northern legislators tried to introduce bills in Congress to abolish slavery.
Southern representatives responded by getting Congress to adopt a
Under this rule, legislators could limit or ban debate on any issue-including slavery. The rule was repealed in 1845.
The nation’s slave population doubled between 1810 and 1830- from 1.2 million to about 2 million.
The institution of slavery had changed substantially since the 18th century. In those days, most slaves were male.
Many African American slaves supplied the labor needs in cities.
They worked in textile mills, mines, and labor yards. Some slaves were skilled workers, such as blacksmiths or carpenters.
Life Under Slavery
Another important abolitionist was
a former slave.
Born a slave in 1817, Douglass had been taught to read and
write by the wife of one of his owners.
1833 Douglass had a skilled job as a ship caulker in Baltimore.
He excelled at his job and earned high wages.
However, Douglass’s slave owner took his pay each week. As a result, Douglas escaped and went to New York.
In New York, Douglass became an eager reader of The Liberator, and an admirer of William Lloyd Garrison.
Soon, Douglass became a leader in the abolitionist cause.
He founded an antislavery newspaper called The North Star.
They also contributed to a literary movement that stressed freedom and self-reliance.
Emerson’s friend and fellow writer
Henry David Thoreau
(author of Walden) practiced self-reliance.
He left his regular life and built a cabin on the shore of
Walden Pond, near Concord Massachusetts.
Thoreau believed in
- people should protest and not obey laws they considered unjust.
The Unitarian movement was another spiritual movement that grew during this time.
Unitarianism appealed to reason, not to emotion. It objected to revival meetings as too emotional. This movement attracted wealthy and educated people.
Second Great Awakening
was a religious movement that swept across the United States after 1800. It relied on emotional sermons in meetings called
. A revival might last several days. Its participants were known as revivalists.
Preachers, such as Charles G. Finney, gave exciting sermons to bring out emotional responses from their audiences.
They preached that each person had the
responsibility to find salvation. They also
stressed that people could change themselves
The Second Great Awakening
To increase their power, workers joined trade unions, or unions specific to each trade.
These unions eventually joined together to form the
National Trades’ Union
This union represented a variety of trades.
Factory owners opposed the union movement.
In 1842, the Massachusetts Supreme Court supported the right of workers to strike in Commonwealth v. Hunt.
Most strikebreakers were European immigrants. Immigration from Europe to the United Stated increased between 1830 and 1860.
Irish immigrants had come to escape the Great Potato Famine.
1840s a disease killed most of the potato crop in Ireland.
The Irish faced prejudice in the United Stated because they were poor and Roman Catholic.
Workers Seek Better Conditions
In the mills of Lowell, Mass., most factory workers were young, unmarried women.
Factory owners hired mostly young women
because they could pay them less than men.
These women were known as “mill girls.” They
lived in boarding houses owned by the factory.
1834 the mill owners cut wages for workers.
In response, 800 “mill girls” went on
work stoppage in order to force an employer to
respond to demands.
The company prevailed.
Farm Worker to Factory Worker
The Changing Workplace
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
campaigned for women’s rights. Both had
1848 they organized a women’s right
convention in Seneca Falls, New York.
It became known as the
Seneca Falls Convention
They called for laws that guaranteed equal rights for women; including suffrage- the right to vote.
, a former slave, became famous for speaking out for both abolition and women’s rights.
What was the Seneca Falls convention?
Many women also worked to improve education-mainly for girls.
Some women worked to improve women’s health.
Catherine Beecher, a respected educator, undertook a national survey of women. She found three sick women for every healthy one.
One reason was that they wore clothing so
restrictive that breathing sometimes was difficult.
Amelia Bloomer, a newspaper publisher, devised
looser-fitting clothes known as “bloomers.”
Women and Reform
Virginia lawmakers introduced a bill that abolished slavery in the state.
After a heated debate, the bill was defeated by a close vote.
That loss ended the debate on slavery in the
, or pre-Civil War South.
Across the South, state legislatures passed laws known as slave codes, restricting blacks’ rights even further.
Under these new laws, slaves could not preach,
testify in court, own property, or learn to read.
Slave Owners Defend Slavery
1831 a Virginia slave named
led a violent slave rebellion.
He and his followers attacked
They killed several people.
Turner and his followers eventually were captured and executed.
Gradually, more and more whites began to support
- the movement to end slavery.
One of the more significant abolitionists was
William Lloyd Garrison
, a newspaper publisher.
In his newspaper, The Liberator, Garrison
called for immediate
, or freeing
of the slaves.
was a free black who moved from the South to the North. He urged African Americans to fight for their freedom.
Abolitionist Speak Out
Slavery and Abolition
Some reformers wanted to create ideal living environments, or
In these experimental communities, people tried to create a “perfect” place by living in harmony and self-sufficiency out of the country.
In the 1830s, Americans began to demand tax-supported public schools.
By the 1850s, every state had a law that created
an elementary school system.
worked for reform in the
treatment of mentally ill.
What did Americans attempt to reform?
One philosophical and literary movement was
based on the ideas of
Ralph Waldo Emerson
New England writer & philosopher. Emerson led
a group participating
According to transcendentalism, people could find
truth by looking at nature and within themselves
rather than in any organized system of beliefs.
Transcendentalists believed in the dignity of the individual.
They fought for social changes such as getting rid of slavery and improving conditions in prison.
What was transcendentalism?
Charles Finney and other preachers influenced more people in the United States to attend church.
The revivalist movement attracted numerous African Americans.
In Philadelphia, Richard Allen started the African Methodist Episcopal Church. It became a political, cultural, and social center for many African Americans.
Religion Sparks Reform
Reforming American Society