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Chapter 16. Mixed Methods Designs

Allison Hingley, Aksana Kavaliova, Jaley Montgomery, Gregory O'Barr
by

Aksana Kavaliova

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 16. Mixed Methods Designs

Chapter 16. Mixed Methods Designs
by Allison Hingley, Aksana Kavaliova, Jaley Montgomery, Gregory O'Barr

What is it?
A combination of collecting or "mixing" quantitative and qualitative methods in a study
Why this Method?
Qualitative + Quantitative = Comprehensive View
When one method is not enough
To satisfy the "norm"
How was it Developed?
Mixing Forms of Quantitative
Combining Both Types of Data
Controversy!
What's your view?
Evaluating Mixed-Methods Studies
Study 1
The authors state that mixed methods research provided a "broad and varied range of information about pediatric radiation therapy patients' experiences" and that integrating the two datasets "enhanced the interpretation and overall understanding of the research question."
Study 2
The researchers initially explained that they would like the qualitative data to be used to help in interpreting the results of the quantitative data.
Study 3
The researchers in this study had two reasons for collecting and analyzing quantitative and qualitative data:

1. To gain insight into participants' qualitative experiences and
2. To triangulate the qualitative data with quantitative data.
The researcher should explain their use of mixed-methods research as the best approach as either qualitative or quatitative data alone would be inadaquate.
Study 1
Bradt, Burns, & Creswell (2013) found that this study employed non-parametric statistical analyses on that quantitative data and a thematic analysis of the qualitative data based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory process.


Study 2
While this study collected both quantitative and qualitative data, and both datasets were analyzed, the datasets were not analyzed to explain each other as the author orginally intended.
Study 3
Quantitative data were collected in the form of pre- and posttests (IES Revised and Beck Depression Inventory-II). Quantitative data were collected via discussion transcriptions, therapists' notes and exit interviews with the patients.
Data in the study should include qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis.
Study 1
Quantitative and qualitative data were collected separately and the results compared to gain a better understanding the research question. The quantitative data showed no statistical significance between intervention/control groups BUT the qualitative data suggests that the music therapy intervention was greatly supported by the qualitative data. Lack of statistical significance was attributed to small sample size.
Study 2
In this study, results were presented side-by-side much as they would be in a convergent design. There was no clear integration of the two datasets.
Study 3
Quantitative data showed a significant reduction in PTSD symptoms but non-significant reduction in depression symptoms. The qualitative data supported these findings and showed a strong improvement in patients' moods and motivations.
In their study, the researcher should combine or mix both the qualitative and qualitative datasets.
Study 1
Authors included detailed information about each type of data collection:

Quantitative - Kidcope questionnaire
Qualitative - Patient/parent interviews
Study 2
Data collection methods included:

Quantitative - PedsQL Family Impact Module (prior to and after treatment)

Qualitative - Semi-structured interview about experiences
Study 3
Pre- and posttests used two different measurement tools; the qualitative data was guided by consistent notes and videotaping as well as exit interviews that contained four standardized questions.
Procedures employed by the researcher for data collection and analysis should be rigorous for both quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Study 1
This study used a convergent mixed-methods design.
Study 2
This study used an explanatory sequential design.
Study 3
This study is a clear example of an embedded design.
The researcher should clearly employ one of the mixed methods research designs.
Study 1
Study 2
QUANTITATIVE
Study 3
While this study contained other diagrams, a diagram of the study's procedure was not included. Bradt, Burns, & Creswell (2013) included the following diagram following an analysis of this third study:
The study should have a diagram that makes light of the timing, priority, and mixing of the two datasets.
Study 1
Barry, P., O'Callaghan, C., Wheeler, B., & Grocke,
D. (2010). Music therapy CD creation in pediatric radiation therapy: A
mixed methods
analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 48, 233-263.

It doesn't get more obvious
than putting it in the title!
Study 2
The authors aimed to use qualitative data to explain findings of quantitative data and identified their study as an "exploratory mixed methods design" (incorrectly - it was an exploratory sequential design but they interpreted the results as researchers might in a convergent design).
Study 3
Carr, C., d’Ardenne, P., Sloboda, A., Scott, C.,
Wang, D., & Priebe, S. (2012). Group music therapy for patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder – an exploratory randomized controlled trial with
mixed methods evaluation
. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85, 179-202.

Again, it's pretty obvious when "mixed
methods" shows up in the title.
Most obviously, the researcher should indicate to the reader that they are employing a mixed methods design.
Study 1
Barry, P., O'Callaghan, C., Wheeler, B., & Grocke, D.
(2010). Music therapy CD creation in pediatric radiation therapy: A mixed methods analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 48, 233-263.
Study 2
Lindenfelser, K. J., Hense, C., & Mcferran, K. (2011).
Music therapy in pediatric palliative care: Family-centered care to enhance quality of life. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.
Study 3
Carr, C., d’Ardenne, P., Sloboda, A., Scott, C., Wang, D.,
& Priebe, S. (2012). Group music therapy for patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder – an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85, 179-202.
Each step in the explanation of the evaluation process comes from the following sources:
Bradt, J., Burns, D. S., & Creswell, J. W. (2013). Mixed Methods Research in Music Therapy Research.
Journal of Music Therapy , 50 (2), 123-148.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Mixed Methods Designs. In J. W. Creswell, Educational Research: Planning,
Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th Edition ed., pp.
534-575). Boston: Pearson.

QUANTITATIVE
QUALITATIVE
QUANTITATIVE Data Collection
QUALITATIVE Data Collection
QUANTITATIVE Data Analysis
QUALITATIVE Data Analysis
Data Results Compared
QUALITATIVE
Pretest - 5 Family-Centered Music Therapy Sessions - Posttest
Outcome: Parental QoL (PedsQL Family Impact)
Open-ended interviews
Explain quantitative results
Treatment Group
QUANTITATIVE
Pretest - 10 week music therapy intervention - Posttest
Outcomes: PTSD syptoms/Depression
Waitlist Control Group
QUANTITATIVE
Pretest - 10 week music therapy intervention - Posttest
QUALITATIVE
Exit Interviews
QUALITATIVE
Videotaped Sessions
Therapists' Notes
Study 1
A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.
Study 2
Study 3
Objectives. Not all patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) respond to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Literature suggests group music therapy might be beneficial in treating PTSD. However, feasibility and effectiveness have not been assessed. The study objectives were to assess whether group music therapy was feasible for patients who did not respond to CBT, and whether it has an effect on PTSD symptoms and depression.
Design. The study employed mixed methods comprising of an exploratory randomized controlled trial, qualitative content analysis of therapy, and patient interviews.
Method. Patients with significant PTSD symptoms (n= 17) following completion of CBT were randomly assigned to treatment (n= 9) or control groups (n= 8). The treatment group received 10 weeks of group music therapy after which exit interviews were conducted. Control group patients were offered the intervention at the end of the study. Symptoms were assessed on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and Beck Depression Inventory II at the beginning and end of treatment.
Results. Treatment-group patients experienced a significant reduction in severity of PTSD symptoms (−20.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [−31.23, −9.12]) and a marginally significant reduction in depression (−11.92; 95%CI: [−24.05, 0.21]) at 10 weeks from baseline compared to the control. Patients viewed music therapy as helpful and reported experiences concur with current literature.
Conclusions. Group music therapy appears feasible and effective for PTSD patients who have not sufficiently responded to CBT. Limitations include the small sample size and lack of blinding. Further research should address these limitations, test sustainability, and identify specific factors that address symptoms in treatment.
...and here are the abstracts of the studies.
Research into the value of music therapy in pediatric palliative care (PPC) has identified quality of life as one area of improvement for families caring for a child in the terminal stages of a life-threatening illness. This small-scale investigation collected data in a multisite, international study including Minnesota, USA, and Melbourne, Australia. An exploratory mixed method design used the qualitative data collected through interviews with parents to interpret results from the PedsQL Family Impact Module of overall parental quality of life. Parents described music therapy as resulting in physical improvements of their child by providing comfort and stimulation. They also valued the positive experiences shared by the family in music therapy sessions that were strength oriented and family centered. This highlighted the physical and communication scales within the PedsQL Family Impact Module, where minimal improvements were achieved in contrast to some strong results suggesting diminished quality of life in cognitive and daily activity domains. Despite the significant challenges faced by parents during this difficult time, parents described many positive experiences in music therapy, and the overall score for half of the parents in the study did not diminish. The value of music therapy as a service that addresses the family-centered agenda of PPC is endorsed by this study.
Types of Mixed Methods Designs
(From Creswell, 4th Ed., p. 541)
Convergent Parallel Design
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
Transformative Design
Multiphase Design
Overall
Program
Objective
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
Compare or Relate
Interpretation
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Follow Up With
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
Interpretation
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Builds To
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
Interpretation
Embedded Design
Quantitative (or Qualitative) Design
Quantitative (or Qualitative) Data Collection and Analysis
Quantittaive (or Qualitative) Data Collection and Analysis (before, during, or after)
Interpretation
Transformative Framework
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Follow Up With
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
Interpretation
Study 1:
Qualitative
Informs
Study 2:
Qualitative
Informs
Study 3:
Mixed Method
Equal priority to quantitative and qualitative data
Concurrent or simultaneous data collection
Compares results
Priority on quantitative data collection and analysis
First collects quantitative data
Uses qualitative data to refine the results of the quantitative data
Priority on qualitative data collection and analysis
First collects qualitative data
Uses quantitative data to explain results from the qualitative data
One form of data is given priority and the other is considered secondary
Data collected simultaneously
Secondary data augments/supplements primary data
Researcher uses convergent, explanatory, exploratory, or embedded design
Overall orienting lens serves as perspective
Researcher calls for change to address social issues faced by group represented in perspective
Uses convergent, explanatory, exploratory, or embedded design in multiple phases
Clearly identifies phases that address larger objective
Interrelates the different phases so they address a common objective
Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs
Provides a Rationale for the Design
Why is the researcher mixing methods?
Includes Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Considers Priority
Emphasis on Quantitative,
Emphasis on Qualitative, or
Equal Emphasis
Considers Sequence
Collecting simultaneously,
Collecting sequentially, or
Collecting simultaneously and sequentially
Matches Data Analysis to a Design
Diagrams the Procedures
Ethical Issues in Mixed Methods Research
Convergent Design
Quantitative and Qualitative sample sizes may not be the same. Researchers cannot minimize the importance of a sample because of it's size.
Explanatory Design
Researchers may start with a large quantitative database for the initial phase. To follow up with qualitative data appropriately, the researcher should use identifiers on quantitative data. If they release quantitative data without permission, another ethical issue arises.
Embedded Design
Initial qualitative interviews may help the researcher design interventions before an experiment. However, using the initial interviews to place participants in a non-treatment control group creates a significant ethical issue.
Notation in Mixed Methods Research
Last, but not least...Dr. Creswell himself on mixed-methods research!
Ready for a Mixed Methods Approach?
Feasibility
Rationale
Strategy for Data Collection
Questions for Study
Write
Report

Collect
Data

Analyze
Data

References








Barry, P., O'Callaghan, C., Wheeler, B., & Grocke, D. (2010). Music therapy CD creation in pediatric
radiation therapy: A mixed methods analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 48, 233-26

Bradt, J., Burns, D. S., & Creswell, J. W. (2013). Mixed Methods Research in Music Therapy
Research. Journal of Music Therapy , 50 (2), 123-148.

Carr, C., d’Ardenne, P., Sloboda, A., Scott, C., Wang, D., & Priebe, S. (2012). Group music therapy for
patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder – an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85, 179-202.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Mixed Methods Designs. In J. W. Creswell, Educational Research: Planning,
Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th Edition ed., pp. 534-575). Boston: Pearson.

Lindenfelser, K. J., Hense, C., & Mcferran, K. (2011). Music therapy in pediatric palliative care:
Family-centered care to enhance quality of life. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine.

Zachariadis, M., Scott, S., & Barrett, M. (2013). Methodological Implications of Critical Realism for
Mixed-Methods Research. MIS Quarterly, 37(3), 855 -879.
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