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Transcript of Diabetes
What Causes Diabetes?
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Diabetes in Canada
Prevention of Diabetes
when the body is unable to produce insulin, or use insulin to regulate blood sugar levels
The pancreas is an organ in the upper belly, behind the stomach and close to the spine. It makes insulin, the hormone that regulates sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Type 1 Diabetes:
Usually diagnosed in children and adolescents, occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes:
Occurs when the body does not make enough insulin and/or does not respond well to the insulin it makes.
This occurs when the beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system and no longer produce insulin.
This is called Insulin Resistance
Risk Factors for developing Type 2 Diabetes
The exact cause of diabetes type 2 is unclear, but there are risk factors that greatly increase a person's chance of developing it....
being overweight or obese
Being Physically Inactive
Having High Blood Pressure or High Cholesterol
Having Family History or Belonging to certain Ethnic populations (e.g. African, Hispanic, Aboriginal, Asian)
= HIGH RISK
Pre-diabetes means that your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but lower than if you have type 2 diabetes
Developing Type 2 Diabetes is Most common in people over the age of 40 and in people who are overweight
...of developing Type 2 Diabetes
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin works to regulate our blood sugar levels by helping our body cells absorb sugar to use as energy.
High Blood Sugar
Unplanned Weight Change (gain or loss)
Tingling or Numbness in Hands or Feet
If you have any of these symptoms, you may wish to visit your healthcare provider. Good management can prevent or delay complications associated with the disease.
In 2008/09, almost 2.4 million Canadians (6.8%) were living with diabetes
estimates suggest that the number of Canadians living with diabetes will reach 3.7 million by 2018/19.
The prevalence of diabetes was 17.2% among First Nations individuals living on-reserve
10.3% among First Nations individuals living off-reserve
7.3% among Métis
compared to 5.0% in the non-Aboriginal population
First Nations on reserve have a rate of diabetes three to five times higher than that of other Canadians.
Diabetes Among First Nations and Métis
What are the long term consequences of diabetes?
Heart and Blood Vessel Disease
Nerve Damage (Neuropathy)
Kidney Damage (Nephropathy)
Eye Damage (retinopathy)
The risk of stroke is two to four times higher for people with diabetes
The death rate from heart disease is two to four times higher for people with diabetes
Too much sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar can eventually cause you to lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.
Diabetes can damage the delicate filtering system that filters waste from your blood. This can lead to kidney failure, or irreversible end-stage kidney disease.
Take Care of Your Body By...
Increasing physical activity
Maintaining healthy weights
By eating foods that are rich in fibre, reducing the amount of fat in food selections and adding more fruits and vegetables, a person can help control their diet and maintain or lose weight.
Eating a healthy and balanced diet
Develop awareness of diabetes symptoms and screening guidelines
A healthier, happier YOU
Body fat stored around the abdomen (rather than the hips and thighs) is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.
Healthy lifestyle choices — including diet, exercise and weight control — provide the foundation for managing type 2 diabetes. However, you may need medications to achieve target blood sugar (glucose) levels
AND / OR
Oral hypoglycemic medications
(e.g. Metformin, Gliclazide)