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Eu external action
Transcript of Eu external action
The EU has put the human rights issue at the forefront of its relations with other countries and regions. All agreements on trade or cooperation with non-EU countries contain a clause stipulating that human rights are an essential element in relations.
"The Union’s action on the international scene shall be guided by the principles which have inspired its own creation […] and which it seeks to advance in the wider world: democracy, the rule of law, the universality and indivisibility of human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for human dignity [more…]" The primary and overarching objectives of EU development policy are to eradicate poverty using a sustainable approach, and to promote democracy, peace and security. The UN's eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are key to this. The MDGs range from halving extreme poverty and halting the spread of HIV/AIDS to providing universal primary education. In 2010, EU development aid totalled €53.8 billion.
Recent success stories include:
- Help for 250 women in the Indian state of Gujarat to export handicrafts to Europe, North America and Japan.
- Support for a local firm in Belize to introduce sustainable logging and forest-management techniques.
- Assistance for farmers in central Cameroon to diversify production.
- Training for small firms in Uganda to share the cost of using essential business support services. European Institutions Council of the EU EEAS Commission Member States Parliament Who is in charge? The Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD) contributes to the objectives of the European External Action Service, the EU Common Security and Defence Policy and a more secure international environment by the political-strategic planning of CSDP civilian missions and military operations, ensuring coherence and effectiveness of those actions as part of the EU comprehensive approach to crisis management and developing CSDP partnerships, policies, concepts and capabilities.
The European Union Military Staff (EUMS - working under the direction of the EUMC and under the authority of the HRVP) is the source of collective (multi-disciplinary) military expertise within the EEAS. As an integral component of the EEAS’s Comprehensive Approach, the EUMS coordinates the military instrument, with particular foci on operations/missions (both military and those requiring military support) and the creation of military capability.
Enabling activity in support of this output includes: early warning (via the SIAC), situation assessment, strategic planning, CIS, concept development, training and education, and support of partnerships through mil-mil relationships. Concurrently the EUMS is charged with sustaining the Kortenbergh OPSCEN (both activated and dormant parts) and providing its core staff when activated.
The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC), which is part of the EEAS, is the permanent structure responsible for an autonomous operational conduct of civilian CSDP operations. Under the political control and strategic direction of the Political and Security Committee and the overall authority of the High Representative, the CPCC ensures the effective planning and conduct of civilian CSDP crisis management operations, as well as the proper implementation of all mission-related tasks. The Political and Security Committee (PSC) meets at the ambassadorial level as a preparatory body for the Council of the EU. Its main functions are keeping track of the international situation, and helping to define policies within the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) including the CSDP. It prepares a coherent EU response to a crisis and exercises its political control and strategic direction.
The European Union Military Committee (EUMC) is the highest military body set up within the Council. It is composed of the Chiefs of Defence of the Member States, who are regularly represented by their permanent military representatives. The EUMC provides the PSC with advice and recommendations on all military matters within the EU. EEAS Development and Cooperation – EuropeAid is a new Directorate–General (DG) responsible for designing EU development policies and delivering aid through programmes and projects across the world. It incorporates the former Development and Europeaid DGs. Having one DG will simplify communication in the development field by acting as a "one stop shop" – providing a single contact point for stakeholders inside and outside the EU to deal with. COUNCIL OF THE EU COMMISSION EEAS Unit VI.B.2 'Development and Cooperation Coordination', under MD VI 'Global and Multilateral Issues' is in charge of development and cooperation issues within EEAS. Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection EU mission EU actions Actors The EU is present in crisis zones around the world including Libya, Afghanistan, the occupied Palestinian territory, and many parts of Africa and South-East Asia. It also runs relief operations in areas with long-running crises and post-conflict instability. Helping the world's most vulnerable populations is a moral imperative for the international community and the European Commission has a longstanding commitment to help the victims of such crises. Its Humanitarian Aid department provides relief assistance that goes directly to people in distress, irrespective of their nationality, religion, gender or ethnic origin.
The European Union as a whole is the world's biggest donors of humanitarian aid. Together, Member States and European Institutions contribute more than half of official global humanitarian aid. COMMISSION The EU's relief operations are handled by DG ECHO, the European Commission Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department. ECHO’s activities reflect the proliferation of serious crises around the world and the EU’s willingness to take the lead in getting help to the victims both within its borders and beyond for both humanitarian aid and civil protection. In its 20 year existence it has provided €14 billion of humanitarian assistance to victims of conflict and disasters in 140 countries around the globe. Over the last five years ECHO's annual budget has averaged €1 billion.
ECHO’s first duty is to help save lives, reduce suffering and protect the integrity and dignity of those affected. Emergency assistance can include tents, blankets, food, medicines, medical equipment, water purification systems and fuel. ECHO also funds medical teams, mine-clearance experts, and transport and logistical support. It has operated in more than 130 countries since 1992. COMMISSION The aim of the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) is to provide support for the promotion of democracy and human rights in non-EU countries. EIDHR's budget is € 1.104 million for 2007-2013 (€ 157 million per year approximately, including electoral observation).
EIDHR focuses on four areas:
- Strengthening democracy, good governance and the rule of law (support for political pluralism, a free media and sound justice system)
- Abolishing the death penalty where it still exists
- Combating torture through preventive measures (like police training and education) and punitive measures (international tribunals and criminal courts)
- Fighting racism and discrimination by ensuring respect for political and civil rights.
The initiative also funds projects for gender equality and the protection of children. In addition, it supports joint action between the EU and other organisations involved in the defence of human rights, such as the UN, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Council of Europe and the OSCE. EC Contribution: € 360,000
EU project protects and promotes the rights of former child soldiers and conflict-affected children in the Mid-Western Region of Nepal. It is helping the reintegration of thousands of affected former child combatants and children.
- The project is giving six months basic reading, writing and maths lessons to 4,000 children who have never attended school or who have dropped out. They are also given life skills education.
- Two thousand children affected by conflict, abuse, and exploitation will also receive psychosocial counselling.
- Training will be given to 100 counsellors on working with child conflict survivors.
- The project is also expected to increase awareness among 50,000 people through various information campaigns such as radio programs and distribution of pamphlets, posters and booklets. For its external action, the EU has developed an extensive human rights 'toolbox'. It includes human rights guidelines, démarches and declarations, Council decisions, human rights dialogues, the inclusion of human rights and gender components in Common Security and Defence Policy missions and operations. These are complemented by activities funded under the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) and other programmes, as well as action in multilateral forums (UN, OSCE, Council of Europe). As of today the EIDHR is funding more than 1200 projects in over 100 countries. This is an example of a successful project: The Human Rights Working Group (COHOM) was created under the Council of the European Union in 1987 (with the extension of its mandate in 2003) and it is responsible for human rights issues in the EU's external relations. It is composed of human rights experts from Member States and the European Commission. The text of the mandate is accessible here . Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection COUNCIL OF THE EU EXAMPLE:
Japan earthquake and tsunami March 2011 COUNCIL OF THE EU The Working Party On Development Cooperation deals with general aspects of development cooperation such as international commitments, aid effectiveness and policy coherence. It covers a variety of topics, including gender equality and reproductive health and crosscutting issues such as trade & development and environment. COUNCIL OF THE EU The Council Working Party on Humanitarian Aid and Food Aid allows for the exchange of views on the humanitarian strategies and policies of the European Union as well as response to humanitarian crises. The working party aims at:
- promoting the European consensus on humanitarian aid
- highlighting causes and consequences of humanitarian crises
- improving EU coordination of humanitarian aid and disaster risk reduction
- strengthening coordination between humanitarian assistance, relief, reconstruction and development assistance. EU mission EU actions Actors EU trade policy agenda:
•Pursue active negotiating agenda
- Multilateral Trade Agreements (Doha Round)
- Bilateral Trade Agreements (ASEAN, India, Canada, Central America, Andean Community, Euromed, Mercosur, Gulf States)
•Deepen relations with strategic partners
- USA, China, Russia, Japan, India, Brazil
•Enforce EU rights, tackling trade barriers This means we are working to:
1. Create a global system for fair and open trade
2. Access markets for European companies, their workers and investors
3. Make sure others play by the rules
4. Ensure trade is a force for sustainable development
We also use our trade policy to reinforce other important international goals:
- supporting the fight to protect our environment and reverse global warming;
- striving to improve working conditions for workers in developing countries; and
- ensuring the highest standards of health and safety for the products we buy and sell. Map of EU trade agreements The development of trade - if properly managed - is an opportunity for economic growth. So EU trade policy seeks to create growth and jobs by increasing the opportunities for trade and investment with the rest of the world.
By working together, Europe has the weight to shape an open global trading system based on fair rules – and to ensure that those rules are respected.
Our success in Europe is inextricably bound up with the success of our trading partners, both in the developed and developing world. For this reason, sustainable development is central to trade policy. COMMISSION COUNCIL OF THE EU PARLIAMENT The Directorate-General for Trade helps to develop and implement the EU's trade policy. It is part of the European Commission, and along with the EU's Trade Commissioner Karel De Gucht, we aim to shape a trade environment that is good for people and for business. The International Trade Committee (INTA) is responsible for matters relating to the establishment and implementation of the Union's common commercial policy and its external economic relations, in particular:
1. financial, economic and trade relations with third countries and regional organisations;
2. measures of technical harmonisation or standardisation in fields covered by instruments of international law;
3. relations with the relevant international organisations and with organisations promoting regional economic and commercial integration outside the Union;
4. relations with the WTO, including its parliamentary dimension.
The committee liaises with the relevant interparliamentary and ad hoc delegations for the economic and trade aspects of relations with third countries.
The purpose of the Trade Policy Committee is to assist the Commission in negotiating and concluding agreements with states or international organizations. The Committee deals with a number of on-going trade policy matters within three main areas:
- WTO issues
- Bilateral trade relations
- New EU legislation within the trade policy area as part of the processing in the Council. In the field of international relations, the European Union has concluded cooperation agreements with various countries, which often contain a cultural element.
- The Erasmus Mundus programme is a cooperation and mobility programme in the field of higher education, which, among other things, promotes exchanges between the EU and third countries.
- The Culture 2000 programme principally supports cultural cooperation projects between organisations from a number of European countries, but also projects taking place in third countries.
The European Union has also set up various instruments geared towards neighbouring countries. Following the Barcelona Declaration in 1995, the MEDA programme was established with 12 Mediterranean partner countries. It contains a variety of measures working towards promoting the dialogue between cultures and civilisations. COMMISSION The Commission DG Education and Culture is active in promoting the external dimension of EU policies in the following fields:
- Education and Training
The European Commission has developed a system of "policy dialogues" with key partner countries and regions around the world. Through this system it aims to highlight areas of European expertise and benefit from other countries' experience in return. EDUCATION
EU international cooperation in education has four goals:
- To support partner countries outside the EU in their modernisation efforts;
- To promote common values and closer understanding between different peoples and cultures;
- To advance the EU as a centre of excellence in education and training;
- To improve the quality of services and human resources in the EU through mutual learning, comparison and exchange of good practice.
Article 151 of the Treaty also requires the Commission and the Member States to promote cultural aspects in the Union's international relations with partners countries and regions; within the EU enlargement, as well as in the context of development and trade policies, as a contribution to a world order based on sustainable development, peaceful coexistence and dialogue between cultures. The EU has no standing army. Instead, under its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), it relies on ad hoc forces contributed by EU countries for:
- joint disarmament operations
- humanitarian and rescue tasks
- military advice and assistance
- conflict prevention and peace-keeping
- tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peace-making and post-conflict stabilisation.
All these tasks may contribute to the fight against terrorism, including by supporting third countries in combating terrorism in their territories. COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES
This cooperation is carried out by supporting EU Centres, public policy think tanks and research institutes. Targeted events are organised in partner countries. This complements national initiatives which typically focus on the bilateral relationship with Member States. EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
With its European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), the EU is seeking to reinforce relations with neighbouring countries to the east and south in order to promote prosperity, stability and security at its borders. EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
- The ENP provides the EU with the means to deepen bilateral relations with neighbouring countries.
- The policy is based upon a mutual commitment to common values: democracy and human rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development.
- The ENP also takes relations beyond standard cooperation or trade agreements to offer political association and deeper economic integration, increased mobility and increased people-to-people contacts. Countries wishing to deepen their relationship with the EU agree joint bilateral action plans to this effect. These set out an agenda of political and economic reforms for a period of three to five years.
- The ENP is further supported by regional forms of cooperation such as the Eastern Partnership, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea Synergy. COOPERATION WITH INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES
- Objective: enhance cooperation between the European Union (EU) and industrialised and other high-income countries in order to strengthen the EU's role and place in the world, to consolidate multilateral institutions and to contribute to balance in the world economy and the international system.
- It also aims at enhancing the visibility of the EU as a whole, promote a better understanding of EU’s actions and positions and exert a positive influence on how the EU is perceived in partner countries. INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANISATIONS
The European Union's commitment to effective multilateralism, with the United Nations and other international organisations at its core, is a central element of its external action. This commitment is rooted in the conviction that to respond successfully to global crises, challenges and threats, the international community needs an efficient multilateral system, founded on universal rights and values.
Much of the EU’s work with international partners is focused on tackling the challenges facing Europe as well as the rest of the world. It is clear that problems as diverse as climate change, terrorism, drugs and energy security have the potential to pose a threat across the world. INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANISATIONS
The EU works with all UN bodies, agencies and programmes across virtually the entire range of UN activities. The EU also works with OECD, UNESCO, WTO, NATO and regional organisations, such as ASEAN, ASEM, Mercosur, SARC, and the African Union, among others. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS & PCAs
• Strategic Partnerships
EU strategic partnerships are structured bilateral relations with countries whose choices and priorities will contribute to shaping the global context that impacts the EU.
- The general principles of Partnership and Cooperation Agreements concern respect for democracy, the principles of international law and human rights. The market economy is also an objective set out in all the PCAs.
- The PCAs establish a bilateral political dialogue between the EU and its partner countries and aim to encourage the convergence of their positions on international issues of mutual concern, to cooperate for stability, security and respect for democracy and human rights. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS & PCAs
• Strategic Partnerships
The EU's strategic partners include Brazil, Canada, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, South Korea and the United States. The standard format of strategic partnerships comprises annual summits between leaders, as well as minister-level and expert-level meetings.
The EU has signed PCAs with several countries, including Vietnam, Mongolia, Philippines, and Kazakhstan, among many others. The dialogue takes place at ministerial level, at parliamentary level and at senior civil servant level. Diplomatic channels and meetings of experts are also part of the political dialogue process. As an observer within the UN, the EU has no vote as such but is party to more than 50 UN multilateral agreements and conventions as the only non-State participant. It has obtained a special "full participant" status in a number of important UN conferences.
• Global Challenges. Examples:
- The EU is a party to the Rio Conventions of 1992, and is also a party to a number of Multilateral Environmental Agreements which usually include a commitment to help developing countries in implementation of these agreements.
- In order to take effective measures against drugs, the EU has accepted the principles of international drug policy adopted at the UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs (UNGASS) in 1998: shared responsibility, emphasis on multilateralism, balanced approach, development mainstreaming and respect for human rights. EEAS COUNCIL OF THE EU PARLIAMENT • AFET The Committee on Foreign Affairs helps to formulate and monitor a foreign policy that addresses the interests of the Union, the security expectations of its citizens and the stability of its neighbours, and ensures that it is coherent and effective. At its sessions on Foreign Affairs, the Council deals with the whole of the Union's external action. Diplomatic issues are mostly dealt with in working parties on international organisations (e.g. CONUN) and regional working parties (e.g. COASI, COEST) • EU Delegations
The EU is represented through 140 EU Delegations and Offices around the world. EU External Action - The EU provided coordinated assistance and ensured the prompt delivery of the help needed to save lives. In 7 shipments, almost 400 tons of in-kind assistance were channeled through the EU Civil Protection Mechanism to Japan. 19 participating states in the EU Civil Protection Mechanism offered in-kind or financial assistance to Japan.
- The Commission's Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) compiled offers of assistance and coordinated the logistics of its delivery.
- A European Civil Protection team of 15 members coordinated the distribution of the assistance on the ground and maintained the liaison with the Japanese authorities.
- The European Commission provided the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) with €10 million to distribute relief items to evacuees and others in need in Japan. Reintegrating Former Soldiers in Nepal Helena Legarda Herranz and Stephan Klose