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Animal Diversity

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Phyllis Grace Walworth

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of Animal Diversity

Sponges:
Simplest, oldest animal
Multicellular
Heterotrophs
A few specialized cells
Essential functions of animals
Feeding, respiration, circulation, excretion
= Water movement
Response
= Can become poisonous
Movement
= swimming larva
Reproduction
= sexual and asexual
Cnidarians (jelly fish & more)
Heterotrophs
Carnivores
Stinging tentacles around their mouth
Have truly specialized cells (stingers, mouths, etc.)
radial symmetry
Flatworms
Flat, soft little worms
Have
cephalization
= have a head
Simple brain (
ganglia
= group of nerve cells)
Simple
eye spots
(can detect light)
Parasites or free-living
tapeworms & planarians
Most are
hermaphrodites

Animal diversity
Basic characteristics of animals
Multicellular
Eukaryotic
NO cell wall
Heterotrophs
Have specialized cells
7 Essential functions of animals
1. Feeding
2. Respiration (breathing)
3. Circulation
4. Excretion
5. Response
6. Movement
7. Reproduction
Animals originated from a unicellular organism
When an egg and sperm come together, they create one fertilized cell (zygote). That cell keeps multiplying until it's a blastula (small ball of cells)
egg + sperm = zygote ---> blastula
The blastula starts forming multiple layers inside of itself
(Three embryonic germ layers)
There is an opening in the blastula called a blastopore
There are 2 ways that these layers form...
If the blastopore becomes the mouth
= protostome
Blastopore
Roundworms
Unsegmented worms
Essential functions:
Carnivores (hunt or parasitic)
Diffusion for respiration & circulation
(No lungs, heart, etc.)
Two body openings! :)
Simple nervous system
Ganglia (group of nerve cells)
Sexual reproduction (Single gender)
If the blastopore becomes the mouth
= protostome
If the blastopore becomes the anus
=deuterostome
Coelom ("see-lum")
= body cavity made of the mesoderm (middle embryonic germ layer)
What is an acoelomate?
"Pseudo-" means 'false'
heterotrophs, eukaryotes, specialized cells
Mollusks
Usually have an internal or external shell
Three types:
gastropods
"stomach foot" (snails)
cephalopods
"head foot" (octopus)
bivalve
"two valves" (clams)
Notes on Mollusks:
Respiration: gills or diffusion
Circulation: circulatory system with heart
Response: Simple nervous system
except the octopus has a complex eye and nervous system
Reproduction: sexual
Bivalve
Cephalopod
Gastropod
Annelids
Essential functions of
annelids
(segmented worms):
1. Carnivores or filter feeders
2. gills or diffusion through skin
3. circulatory system
4. mini-kidneys that filter waste
(Two body openings)
5. brain and nerve cords
6. muscle contraction or swimming
7. sexual (most are hermaphrodites)
Arthropods
Segmented body
tough exoskeleton
made of protein & chitin
jointed appendages
("arthon"- , "pod"-)
Appendage= limb (leg, antennae, etc.) coming off of the main body structure.
Types of Arthropods:
Crustaceans
Arachnids
Insects
Notes
How do arthropods carry out the essential functions of animals?
1. Feeding = carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores
2. Respiration= simple lungs, called book lungs or tracheal tubes
3. circulation= open circulatory system, with a heart and blood vessels
4. excretion= malpighian tubules (filter blood, get rid of waste)
5. response= brain! (nerves, eye, etc.)
6. movement= muscles
7. reproduction= sexual (internal or external)
73% of all animal species are insects!!!)
Exoskeleton= external skeleton (on outside of the body)!
To grow larger, arthropods have to
molt
or "shed" their exoskeleton for a new one to grow
Echinoderms:
Spiny skin
Endoskeleton
internal skeleton
Tube feet
suction-cup structures
Characteristics of chordates:
notochord
Pharyngeal slits
tail
(humans !?!?!?)
notochord= dorsal, hollow nerve cord (like a spinal cord)
Pharyngeal slits= slits on the throat, turn into gills for some animals
Chordates are vertebrates or invertebrates
(with or without backbone/vertebrae).
invertebrate
chordates
tunicates and lancelets
vertebrate
chordates
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
Evolution
The theory that organisms change over time from ancient ancestors
Theory= well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world.
Darwin
Born in England in 1809
Sailed around the world in 1831
Noticed the diversity of animals in different places

Used other theories to shape the theory of evolution
Other theories- The Earth changes over time, traits are passed down from generation to generation, artificial selection
Natural vs. artificial selection
Corn has been artificially selected by Native Americans for thousands of years
dogs have been selected for certain traits
Nature also selects traits that are best for survival

Logic of evolution:
Competition for limited resources
survival of the fittest
some organisms are better prepared to survival
Organisms adapt to their environment over time
Traits are passes down through generations

Evidence of evolution:
Fossil record
Geographic distribution
organisms that are similar but different because of their location
Homologous (similar) body structures
Similarities in embryology

Essential functions of animals
Feeding, respiration, circulation, excretion
=
Response
=
Movement
=
Reproduction
=
Cnidarians (Jelly fish, coral, sea anemones, & more)
How do they get energy?
How do they respond/ defend themselves?
What kind of symmetry?
What kind of specialized cells?
“Rainforests of the sea”
Largest living structures on the planet!
1% of Earth’s surface, containing 25% of all sea life!
Oldest one is 500,000 years old!
30% of coral in the world is damaged or dead
Citizenship moment!
Coral reefs

Goal:
"I can describe the general characteristics and importance of Cnidarians."

Questions:
What is coral? (What Kingdom, phylum, characteristics?)
Why should we care about coral reefs?
Should coral reefs be protected by law?


humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa
Goal
:
"I can describe the general characteristics of flatworms"

Question
:
What can you say about flatworms?
Explain kingdom, phylum, characteristics- symmetry, germ layers, cephalization, etc.
What makes them different from sponges and cnidarians?
Let's draw it! :)

What do you notice about the outside of the roundworm?
What do you notice about the inside?
How do you think it carries out the essential functions of animals?
Goal:
"I can describe the general characteristics of roundworms."

Questions:
What if you have a parasitic roundworm?
What treatment? Can you take antibiotics for it?
What are differences between roundworms and flatworms?
Goal:
"I can describe the general characteristics of mollusks."


Create your own mollusk! :)
Which type?
What's it's name? (scientific and common)
How does it carry out the 7 essential functions of animals?
Three types of mollusks (outside):
Three types of mollusks (inside):
How do annelids carry out the 7 essential functions of animals?
Goal
: "I can describe the general characteristics of annelids."

Questions
:
What makes annelids different from other animals that arelower on the phylogenetic tree
Citizenship
: Why are earthworms important?
Observations about arthropods?
Arthron= ?
pod= ?
Goal:
"I can describe the general characteristics of arthropods."

Can you?
:
What are the three types of arthropods?
which group is the biggest? (most species?)
What are some general characteristics of arthropods? (What makes them different from other animals we've seen?)
Goal:
"I can describe the general characteristics of echinoderms."

Question
: Describe the general characteristics of echinoderms.
Essential functions:
Ocean bottom-feeding (decomopsers)
Have poison
No brain
No heart
Reproduce sexually
Move with tube feet and muscles
Goal:
"I can describe general characteristics and examples of chordates."

Can you?
Describe chordates and give some examples.
Let’s pick which type you want to do a project on! :)

Let’s discuss what we know about chordates

Research activity! :)
Make some observations
Make some observations
Make some observations
Review video! :)
Full transcript