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Transcript of Absolute Zero
NOT!!!! From Steam engines to thermodynamics Fahrenheit and Celsuis Louis-Paul Cailletet liquifies acetylene and finally oxygen Ramsey and Dewar act like two-year-olds absolute zero is measured in kelvin so, absolute zero would be 0 K or 0 degrees Kelvin
but first we must go back to the lowly thermometer Galileo actually invented the thermomscope, a very different tool (see picture below) in 1592 In 1741, Anders Celsius made his own system with (0 degrees) for boiling and (100 degrees) for melting Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot published a work in the ideal steam engine which later influenced thermodynamics and would later form a basis for making as apparatus to reach within a millionth of a degree of absolute zero. He liquified acetylene as an attempt to impress the "Acedemie des Sciences", but only got their attention after liquifying oxygen on December 2, 1877. When Ramsey found helium on earth, something that was believed to only be in the sun, Dewar insisted it was only an isotope of hydrogen. They countinued to butt heads for many years. Both were pioneers in their respective categories, and they would still argue. after that, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit used the porportion as Boyle and Newton, but quadrupled it, to make his own system with 32 degrees as the melting point for ice. now everyone knows that that isn't what we use today, so what happened? Horst Ludwig Stromer happened. He reversed the system, giving us the modern Centigrade scale. The Gilded Age When Cailletet liquified oxygen, excitement coursed through the entire scientific world. This also spurred many attempts at absolute zero. You got the date wrong... On July 9, 1908 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes began to liquefy helium. They worked through the night and by the next evening, they had done what many had thought to be impossible. When he announced this on the 10th, the newspaper printed that it had been done on the 9th. Scientist act immature...again Remember Onnes ? Yes the one who liquified oxygen. He and Dewar had been in a race to liquify oxygen first. As you can tell, Onnes won. Dewar and his assistant, Robert Lennox, argued over whose fault it was that they hadn't done it first. Then Dewar promised never to return to the city until Onnes was dead. (a promise he would keep) The little element that could When working with helium-2, many scientist thought that it was really slippery, but in reality it is a very slow moving and very persistent and that's how it gets over things. Finally reaching Absolute Zero. In June, 1999 a group from MIT quantitatively measured no motion on a BEC that had "no entropy and behaves like matter at absolute zero." Kinda. The sad truth on the matter is that you can't actually reach absolute zero. There is not spot in the universe that heat cannot and does not reach. Thanks for Watching!!!!! by: Jessica Wu What are we to measure absolute zero on?
(hmm..how 'bout a thermometer?) Overview 1592 2012 1741 Galileo invents a device which can measure changes in temperature Farenhiet and Celsuis begin making their systems of measuring temperatures MIT makes a huge discovery Well, sort of. But first, we must go back to the beginning. a temperature in which molecules stop moving a theoretical temperature characterized by complete absence of heat and motion and equivalent to exactly −273.15°C or −459.67°F taken from Merriam-Webster Now to recap 1592 1999 1908 Now you know that the thermometer wasn't made by Galileo. 1741 What do Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, Anders Celsius, and Ludwig Stromer have to do with each other? They were all part of making the modern scales for measuring temperature A group at MIT find an qualitative absolute zero but, as you now know, we will never actually reach absolute zero Onnes liquified helium, and the newspaper reports the wrong date. Sometimes you can't believe everything you read.