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Coral Bleaching

By: Maimuna Abdul, Sami Rehman, Syed Zulfaqar and Philip Zbozny
by

Philip Zbozny

on 22 November 2012

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Transcript of Coral Bleaching

Coral Bleaching By: Maimuna Abdul, Sami Rehman, Syed Zulfaqar and Philip Zbozny What is a Coral Reef? ... are massive structures composed of limestone deposited by living organisms known as coral/ coral polyps http://flowergarden.noaa.gov/education/coralbasics.html *A single coral polyp Coral exist as... Hard Coral: grow in colonies + architects of coral reefs
create skeletons out of calcium carbonate (limestone)
require algae zooxanthellae for survival (zo-zan-THEL-ee) Soft Coral: soft, bendy, resemble plants http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pink_soft_coral_Nick_Hobgood.jpg http://underwater.com.au/image/id/1067 Coral Reefs support ~25% marine species Home to 4,000 species of fish, 700 different corals and thousands of plants and other animals! Coral Reefs can be found in 100 different countries around the globe including Eastern, Western and Central Pacific waters, the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean!!! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:World_Map_FIVB.png Great barrier Reef
- Queensland Australia - typically found in shallow waters within tropics
- ecologically, economically + culturally sig.
- "hot-spots" of biodiversity + important for fisheries and tourism http://www.bayactionplan.com/2011/02/comparing-chesapeake-bay-and-great-barrier-reef/ ...the result of the disruption of symbioses between the coral hosts + photosynthetic endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) whitening of the coral reef results... http://www.phoenixislands.org/bleaching.html Recorded since 1970-1980s
a growing concern for ecosystems
sparking study + observation Causes of Coral Bleaching?! Many triggers for causing bleaching Triggers... In a laboratory bleaching can be caused by several factors... Extreme temperature change http://www.projectaware.org/blog/blueseasonbali/mar-04-12/zooxanthallae-adapt-temperatures Solar light Micro-organisms Pollution Majority of the world’s major coral reefs have been affected by bleaching due to thermal changes Research conducted at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands
Very temperate and tropical temperature
There is an array of diversity - 184 species With increase in seawater there was a widespread of bleaching events in the Abrolhos
Summertime bleaching linked to temperature change http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_in_the_Houtman_Abrolhos Experiment conducted to see how light change affects symbiont photosynthesis

Chlorophyll tissue extracted from zooxanthella and subjected to different light frequencies http://www.lizasreef.com/HOPE%20FOR%20THE%20OCEANS/coral_reef_ecology.htm Overall result was that the affects of light vary among dinoflagellates High exposure to UV results in more photosynthesis which can in turn result in bleaching http://jeanninezito.blogspot.ca/2011/04/mr-sun.html Bacteria can also result in bleaching 1993 rod shaped bacteria found attached to the bleached zone of a coral Samples collected from the Mediterranean and cream colored bacteria on all of the bleached ones
Absent from the unbleached Many different types of exp. conducted - resulted in bacteria causing bleaching
Bacteria placed on a healthy coral in a sterile environment
Bacteria placed on two healthy corals and antibiotics given to one Sunscreen (Pollution)
Pollution is a recent cause discovered for bleaching
Compounds of sunscreen destroy the dinoflagellates on the coral causing them to bleach http://fitnessandfrozengrapes.com/2012/06/21/5-smart-tips-to-stay-cool-during-your-workout/ Conservation in a changing climate require pragmatic conservation actions informed by sitespecific understanding of susceptibility to climate change and capacity of societies to cope with and adapt to change.
Building of large reserves protects biodiversity which enhances the maintenance of genetic diversity. Loss of genetic diversity can decrease population viability (through genetic drift and inbreeding) and decrease the ability to adapt to a changing environment. 1. Marine protected area/ Coral reserves Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), Queensland, Australia (image from reference) Reserve consideration: a) Reserve location
Rich in biodiversity, resilience (resilience population can save others) b) Reserve size
Larger are better (can sustain multiple species, conserve genetic diversity) c) Reserve spacing
Close enough to ensure connectivity, prevent risk of wide-spread damages 2. Satellite and in situ temperature observations Increased the ability to detect anomalous and persistent warm water and are being widely used to predict climate change, coral bleaching and mortality. Identification of ‘bleaching hotspot’ Hotspot evolution in the western Indian Ocean in 1998 and 2005. (image from reference) Site specification enable the study of reef recovery after past bleaching events
Act as an early warning system 3. Conservation genetics seek for a better understanding of the resilience of corals reefs; that is, how much they can absorbed, and recovered from, before ecosystem functions are lost. http://www.psypost.org/2012/08/remaking-history-a-new-take-on-how-evolution-has-shaped-modern-europeans-13350 Emphasize:
(i) Evolutionary History
(ii) Genetic connectivity
(iii) Molecular markers for coral stress;
(iv) The role and genetic identification of coral-inhabiting algal endosymbionts. THE END THANKS FOR WATCHING 4. Global Partnership Climate change is global, a global action is needed
Increasing concern on global coral reef status promote formation of various international partnerships such as ICRI The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) is an international partnership, established to reverse the global degradation of coral reefs
Conduct seminar, convention, workshops, assessment reports http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/about-us/corporate-information/our-organisation/international-coral-reef-initiative Assessment report: Status of Coral Reefs of the Pacific and Outlook: 2011 Why Is Coral Bleaching an issue? Temperature stress = lower photosynthetic capacity of corals
Disrupts symbiosis between coral hosts and zooxanthellae
Photosynthesis 2 (and electron transport chain) impaired Associated organism communities http://www.underwaterphotography.com/photo-contest/default.aspx?countryid=324&CurPage=5&Chapter=0 Lizard Island, Australia: coral dwelling crab, Trapezia cymodoce (Red dotted coral crab)
Decrease in crab density
Reduced fecundity (40% smaller clutch size)
Increased emigration and aggressive interactions (competition) Note: Figure from a reference Corallivorous filefish local population completely disappeared
Corallivorous butterflyfish switched to more abundant coral prey Additional disturbances: disease, predation Caribbean (2005): disease outbreak = coral cover decline by 61% in following 2 years Glance at the future: if temperature continues to increase in frequency, reproduction will decline = reducing stability of populations Abrolhos Islands (2011): decrease in dispersal + coral followed by bleaching = decrease supply of larvae = mean mortality rate of 48.57% Doi:10.1007/s00338-011-0748-0 Abrolhos prior to 2011 bleaching Abrolhos after to 2011 bleaching http://www.advancedaquarist.com/blog/higher-latitude-corals-experience-bleaching-at-the-houtman-abrolhos-islands The Big Picture: Coral bleaching events cause significant host mortality and shift abundance and community composition of symbiotic organisms.
While some corals may recover, negative impacts on populations of symbiotic organisms remain. Morphological changes in coral
Branching corals replaced by bleaching- resistant corals which contain less structural complexity and support less diversity Acknowledgments We would like to thank the following:

A.E. Douglas. 2003. Coral Reef Bleaching-How and Why?. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46: 385-92

A. Kushmaro, Y. Loya, M. Fine, and E. Rosenberg. 1996. Bacterial Infection and Coral Bleaching. Nature, 380: 396

Andrew Chin, Thierry Lison de Loma, Katie Reytar, Serge Planes, Karin Gerhardt, Eric Clua, Lauretta Burke, and Clive Wilkinson. 2011. Status of Coral Reefs of the Pacific and Outlook: 2011. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, 1-260.

Coral Reef Alliance. 2012. Coral Reef Overview. <http://www.coral.org/resources/about_coral_reefs/coral_overview>

D. Abdo , L. Bellchambers, and S. Evans. 2012. Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands. PLOSone, 7: 1-11

G. R. Almany, S. R. Connolly, D. D. Heath, J. D. Hogan, G. P. Jones, L. J. McCook, M. Mills, R. L. Pressey, and D. H. Williamson. 2009. Connectivity, biodiversity conservation and the design of marine reserve networks for coral reefs. Coral Reefs, 28: 339-351

I. J. Dight, L. M. Scherl. 1997. The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI): Global priorities for the conservation and management of coral reefs and the need for partnerships. Coral Reefs, 16: S139-S147

J. S. Stella, P. L. Munday, G. P. Jones. 2011. Effects of coral bleaching on the obligate coral-dwelling crab
Trapezia cymodoce. Coral Reefs, 30: 719-727

Madeline J.H. Van Oppen and Ruth D. Gates. 2006. Conservation genetics and the resilience of reef-building corals. Molecular Ecology, 15: 3863-3883

M. Hoogenboom, D. Campbell, E. Beraud, K. DeZeeuw, and C. Ferrier. 2012. Effects of Light, Food Availability and Temperature Stress on the Function of Photosystem II and Photosystem I of Coral Symbionts. PLOSone, 7: 1-14

N. Parks. 2012. Sunscreen Cause Coral Bleaching. The Ecological Society of America, 12:39

P.W. Glynn. 1993. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs, 12: 1-17

T.R. McClanahan, J.E. Cinner, J. Maina, N.A.J. Graham, T.M. Daw, S.M. Stead, A. Wamukota,
K. Brown, M. Ateweberhan, V. Venus, & N.V.C. Polunin. 2008. Conservation action in a changing climate. Conversation Letters 1: 53-59

T. R. McClanahan, M. Ateweberhan, C. Ruiz Sebastian, N. A. J. Graham, S. K. Wilson, J. H. Bruggemann, M. M. M. Guillaume. 2007. Predictability of coral bleaching from synoptic satellite and in situ temperature observations. Coral Reefs, 26: 695-701

W. K. Fitt and M. E. Warner. 1995. Bleaching Patterns of Four Species of Caribbean Reef Corals. Biological Bulletin, 189: 298-307
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