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Homeless Youth

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Alyssa Casale

on 6 December 2014

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Transcript of Homeless Youth

Homeless Youth
Implications in School
Research indicates that homelessness and residential mobility leads to (Bassuk, 2010):
1. Poor academic performance
2. Repetition of grades
3. Higher drop out rate
4. Lower rates of school graduation

Fewer than
1 : 4

homeless children graduates from high school (The National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009)
Temporary Housing
Public or private places not designed for sleeping
Cars, parks, abandoned buildings, buses or trains
Migratory children qualify as homeless because they are living in the circumstances described above
Homelessness in the Capital Region
Highest local rates of homeless youth for the 2012-2013 school year
children will experience homelessness (The National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009)
The National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty estimated in 2007 that more than children will experience homelessness annually (Griffin & Farris, 2010)
of children in and transitional living facilities are (HUD, 2009).
Many of these children are disproportionately of color (HUD, 2009)
of Homeless Youth are due to family rejection (UCLA, 2012).
In 2010, black family members stayed in a homeless shelter, a rate higher than for white families (HUD, 2009).
1 in every 50
1.35 Million
less then 6 years old
51 %
Who is Homeless Youth?
The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, defines homelessness as children and youth who "lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence".
Sarah Buckley, Meghann Kocjan, Alyssa Casale, and Cassandra Plumadore
Ballston Spa:
Saratoga Springs:

Emotional Impacts on the Child
One quarter of homeless children have witnessed violence within their families and even more violence in their communities (Buckner, Beardslee & Bassuk, 2004).

Mental Health (Bassuk, Buckner, Weinreb, Browne, Bassuk, Dawson & Perloff, 1997):

Ongoing chronic stress can have profound and last effects that can manifest in adulthood (Bassuk, 2007)

Behavioral Problems
Delayed Developmental Milestones
Emotional Dis-regulation
Anxiety and Depression
Loss of Safety and Security
Attachment Disorders
Legal Considerations
McKinney-Vento Homeless Act 1987
This federal law entitles homeless children to a free and appropriate educations.
Schools must eliminate barriers to enrollment, attendance, and success in school for homeless students. Students can enroll immediately even if they are lacking required paperwork such as birth certificate or immunization records.
Transportation to original school, regardless of the child's current residence location.
(Mizerek & Hinz, 2004)
How it Helps!
In December 2001, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Act. This re-authorization requires school districts to keep homeless students in their "school of origin". To the extent possible, provide transportation to and from school. Students who are homeless are also immediately eligible for free meals. Access to educational services that are comparable to any student in district.
DASA seeks to provide the State's students with a safe and supportive environment free discrimination, intimidation, taunting, harassment, and bullying on school property, a school bus, and/or at a school function (NYSED, 2013).
ASCA Standards
Multicultural Competencies
Local Resources
Capital City Rescue Mission

Unity House of Troy: Emergency Services

City Mission of Schenectady

Parsons: Child and Family Center

Capital Area Council of Churches

Captain Youth and Family Services
HATAS (Homeless and Travelers Aid Society)

Interfaith Partnership for the Homeless


Catholic Charities

Family and Youth Service Bureau

Capital City Rescue Mission
Work to establish as appropriate, collaborative relationships with parents/guardians to best serve students

I.7. I can anticipate when my helping style is inappropriate for a culturally different student.
1.8. I can give examples of how stereotypical beliefs about culturally different persons impact the counseling relationship.
III.17. I can define and discuss prejudice
III.18. I recognize and challenge my colleagues about discrimination and discriminatory practices in schools.
V.29. I view myself as an advocate for fair testing and the appropriate use of testing of children from diverse backgrounds.
VI.35. I can discuss culturally diverse methods of parenting and discipline.
VII.38. I work with families and community members in order to reintegrate them with the school.
VII.39. I can define "social change agent."
VII.43. I can discuss how factors such as poverty and powerlessness have influenced the current conditions of at least two ethnic groups.
VIII.44. I have developed a school-family-community partnership team or some similiar type of group that consists of community members, parents, and school personnel.
VIII.45. I am aware of community resources that are available for students and their families.
VIII.46. I work with community leaders and other resources in the community to assist with student (and family) concerns.
IX.49. I verbally communicate my acceptance of culturally different students.
IX.50. I nonverbally communicate my acceptance of culturally different students.
IX.51. I am mindful of the manner in which I speak and the emotional tone of my interactions with culturally diverse students.
(ASCA, 2010)
Responsibility to Students
Student Peer Support Program
Making referrals when necessary or appropriate to outside resources for student and/or family support

Parents/Guardians and Confidentiality
Counseling Strategies
(Best Practice)
Privilege Activity
1. How did it feel to take part in the activity?
2. How did it feel to take steps forwards/backwards?
3. How did it feel to be left behind as people took steps away from you?
4. How did it feel to move forward and leave others behind?
5. How did it feel to be in the front/back?
Things to think about!
Sharing housing due to loss of housing or economic hardship, otherwise known as "doubling up"
Motels, hotels, trailer parks or camping grounds
Emergency or transitional shelters
Abandoned in hospitals
Awaiting foster care placement

Best for children under the age 11 to explore their experiences through a natural, self-guided, self-healing process.
Through play students can act out their experiences through re-enactment to resolve traumatic experiences.
Reduces anxiety and behavioral problems
(Baggerly & Borkowski, 2004)
Counseling sessions can also focus on:
Goal setting- emotional support- skill building-communication - stress & anxiety management-building resiliency
Child Centered Play Therapy
Solution based Theory

Places emphasis on the future rather than the present or past.
Encourages what students can do for themselves
All people are free to make choices.

Backpack Activity
How Families become homeless
Sudden loss of parental employment
Economic hardship
Lack of affordable housing
Escape dangerous situations including domestic violence and abuse
Unaccompanied immigrants
Fire or natural disaster
Addiction disorder
Age out of foster care

School Counselor's Role
*Social Justice*
School Counselor's Role
*Cultural Self-Awareness*
*Conflict Resolution*
(Times Union, 2014)

Counseling Interventions
Develop and implement “wrap around” services that include community, family, health, social services, and educational perspectives.
Have student create a genogram
Have student create a timeline of their life
Create a positive counseling environment

Use inclusive language and avoid assumptions. For example, ask "who takes care of you?" instead of referring to a mother or father
Person-Centered Theory
Based on the core conditions of genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and accurate empathic understanding
helping students feel understood in the midst of turmoil helps promote calmness and hope, which helps students make better decisions
Helps students be more receptive to seeking assistance (Corey, 2013)

-These skills are crucial in school-aged children when peer relationships are part of development
-Homeless youth are often rejected by their peers due to physical appearance, lack of possessions,
and socio-economic status
*Peer mediation
*Promote self-independence
*Positive reinforcement
- Often react more defensively due to amount of stress
- Be mindful of your own thoughts and personal experiences with homelessness
- Do not assume all families/students are like the stereotypical homeless population.
- Take time to learn about the individual family/student beliefs and roles
- Develop a plan to educate yourself on the cultural diversities of students
American School Counselor Association (2010). Ethical standards for school counselors.

Baggerly, J., & Borkowski, T. (2004). Applying the ASCA National Model to elementary school students who are homeless: A case study.Professional School Counseling, 8(2), 116-123. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedsearch.com/article/Applying-ASCA-National-Model-to/126313952.html

Bassuk, E. L., Buckner, J. C. Weinreb, L. F., Brown, A., Bassuk, S. S., Dawson, R., & Perloff, J. N. (1997). Homelessness in female-headed families: Childhood and adult risk and protective factors. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 241-248.

Bassuk, E. L. (2010). Ending child homelessness in America. Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(4), 496-504.

Corey, G. (2010). Person-Centered Therapy. In
Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy
(9th ed., pp. 181-187). Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Pub.

Foscarinis, Maria. Housing as a human right. (2013). Retrieved from http://homelessnesslaw.org/2013/06/ending-homelessness-social-justice-and-human-rights/

Horowitz, S. V., Boardman, S. K., & Redlener, I. (1994). Constructive conflict management and coping in homeless children and adolescents. Journal of social issues, 50(1), 85-98.

Mizerek, Elizabeth and Hinz, Elizabeth. (2004). Principal Leadership Magazine. 8 (4). Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/nassp_homeless.aspx

Pfeiffer, Larry.(2012, October) Homeless Education Training for Teachers. Retrieved from
Youtube Video.

Stanforth, L. (2014, June 23). Number of Homeless Children explodes in state. Times Union. Retrieved from http://www.timesunion.com/local/article/Number-of-homeless-children-still-high-after-5570153.php#page-2

Starkey, D. (2010). Counseling Children of Poverty. In
Professional School Counseling
(2nd ed., pp. 873-878). Austin: CAPS Press.

Mizerek, E. A., & Hinz, E. E. (2004). Helping homeless students. Principal Leadership Magazine,. Albany, NY.

New York State Education Department, (2013). New York's dignity for all students act {BROCHURE}. Albany, NY.

Remember that homelessness/shelter is a basic human right
Fair allocation of community resources
Address the causes that create homelessness
Prevent further harm to people already struggling with homelessness
Educate teachers on effects of homelessness on school performance
Keep in contact with the district's homeless liaison to ensure the students' rights are being met
Gather as much information as possible from the students' prior school, as well as make contact with another school if a student moves
7 times
1 in 141
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