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Immigration and Urbanization
Transcript of Immigration and Urbanization
Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol.
They felt it destroyed the moral fiber of the nation (contributed to crime, violence, destroyed the family)
(1919): prohibits the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages
The Temperance Movement
Low wages, long hours
Unsafe working conditions
Negative effects of industrialization
(e.g., the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased industrial production in cities.
in cities created increased labor needs.
More jobs in cities
(e.g., mail order).
= the movement of people from rural areas to cities
Changes in farm and city life
Examples of big business
Captains of industry
(John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt)
(mechanization, assembly line)
The Rise of Big Business
Discrimination during the turn of the 20th century
Formation of unions= groups of workers who join together to demand improvements in their workplace
American Federation of Labor (AFL)= largest union of skilled workers, started by Samuel Gompers in 1886.
Strikes= work stoppage; refusal to work in order to have demands met.
Homestead Strike- strike at one of Andrew Canegie's steel plants in Homestead, Pennsylvania. It ended in violence between the factory guards and workers.
Rise of Organized Labor and Progressive Movement Reforms
Overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in the cities and tenements.
Tenement= apartment houses where large families shared one or two rooms, often without heat or water.
Ethnic neighborhoods- immigrants were often segregated into neighborhoods slums based on their ethnicity.
Political corruption by political machines, which were an organization of a political party that granted favors in return for votes
Discrimination against immigrants
Negative Effects of Urbanization and Immigration
ope for better opportunities (money)
scape oppressive governments (political)
Reasons for Increased Immigration
Increased Immigration (Availability of work force due to immigration)
Americans move from rural to urban areas for job opportunities.
New Inventions- Electricity, lighting, telephones, cars, and the railroad gave cities access to important raw materials and goods.
Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago)
The Growth of U.S. Cities
Efforts to solve immigration problems
= community centers that were established to help address the needs of the city's poor people.
was a famous Progressive Era reformer who founded Hull House, a famous settlement house in Chicago
, although often corrupt, gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (looking to offer jobs, housing)
Chinese and Irish
immigrant faced intense discrimination upon arrival.
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act-
prohibited the immigration of Chinese people to the U.S.
Was originally for 10 years, but was extended until 1943.
continued to face discrimination and violence as well. (Remember Jim Crow laws, or Black Codes?).
Other groups that faced discrimination: Mexicans, Native Americans, and other immigrant groups, such as
Italians, Polish, and Jews
faced discrimination as well.
= hatred or discrimination of Jewish people
Ellis Island opened in 1892, as the largest federal immigration station.
Millions of new immigrants would enter the U.S. first through Ellis Island in NYC, where they would undergo a medical examination and be and processed.
.Approximately 20 percent of immigrants inspected at Ellis Island were temporarily detained, half for health reasons and half for legal reasons.
Different Responses to African American Discrimination
Booker T. Washington
Believed equality could be achieved through vocational education. Believed political equality would later follow.
Accepted social segregation
Established the Tuskegee Institute for agricultural education.
Believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans.
Did not believe "separate" could be "equal." Did NOT accept segregation or discrimination.
John D Rockefeller
Owned a very profitable OIL business
Owned a very profitable STEEL business
Became very wealthy from RAILROADS and shipping business
An estimated 40% of Americans can trace at least one ancestors back to Ellis Island.
Inventions and Change
• Electric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity
Invention of the airplane (1903)
The Wright brothers
• Telephone service
Use of the assembly line; automobile
Rise of mechanization
Important b/c it made the car affordable. Cheap, mass production.
Factors that contributed to Industrialization (the growth of industry)
• Access to raw materials and energy
• Availability of work force due to immigration
• New Inventions
• Financial resources
Improved workplace safety conditions
Reduced work hours (8 hour workday)
Placed restrictions on child labor
Better wages (Minimum wage)
Improved sanitation (food inspection,living conditions, housing)
End government corruption
Women's suffrage movement (19th Amendment)
Prohibition movement (18th amendment)
Assimilation and services for immigrants (Settlement houses)
: Women gained the right to vote (1920)
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked for women’s suffrage.
Susan B. Anthony is on our dollar coin today.
Women's Suffrage Movement
Suffrage= the right to vote
A reform movement that worked to improve conditions for people, especially workers, women, and immigrants.
= accumulated great wealth in banking
Workers often worked 14 hour days in overcrowded conditions. In NYC at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory there was a fire that killed 148 people.
Children would operate dangerous equipment for little to no pay. No laws on child labor until 1936.
Fought for women to gain the right to vote
Turn of 19th century (late 1800s, early 1900s): Most immigrants came from Europe (Italy, Ireland, Germany, Poland)