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Immigration and Urbanization

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Nicole Davis

on 27 February 2015

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Transcript of Immigration and Urbanization

The Gilded Age: Immigration, Urbanization and Industrialization
Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol.
They felt it destroyed the moral fiber of the nation (contributed to crime, violence, destroyed the family)

18th Amendment
(1919): prohibits the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages

The Temperance Movement


Progressive Movement



Child labor

Low wages, long hours

Unsafe working conditions


Negative effects of industrialization


Mechanization
(e.g., the reaper) reduced farm labor needs and increased industrial production in cities.

Industrial development
in cities created increased labor needs.
More jobs in cities

Industrialization provided
new
access to
consumer goods
(e.g., mail order).

Urbanization
= the movement of people from rural areas to cities

Changes in farm and city life


Examples of big business


National markets
created by
transportation advances

Captains of industry
(John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt)

Advertising

Lower-cost production
(mechanization, assembly line)


The Rise of Big Business


Discrimination during the turn of the 20th century




Formation of unions= groups of workers who join together to demand improvements in their workplace

American Federation of Labor (AFL)= largest union of skilled workers, started by Samuel Gompers in 1886.

Strikes= work stoppage; refusal to work in order to have demands met.

Homestead Strike- strike at one of Andrew Canegie's steel plants in Homestead, Pennsylvania. It ended in violence between the factory guards and workers.


Rise of Organized Labor and Progressive Movement Reforms

Overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in the cities and tenements.

Tenement= apartment houses where large families shared one or two rooms, often without heat or water.

Ethnic neighborhoods- immigrants were often segregated into neighborhoods slums based on their ethnicity.


Political corruption by political machines, which were an organization of a political party that granted favors in return for votes

Discrimination against immigrants
Chinese
Irish


Negative Effects of Urbanization and Immigration

H
ope for better opportunities (money)

E
scape oppressive governments (political)

A
dventure

R
eligious Freedom


Reasons for Increased Immigration

Increased Immigration (Availability of work force due to immigration)

Americans move from rural to urban areas for job opportunities.

New Inventions- Electricity, lighting, telephones, cars, and the railroad gave cities access to important raw materials and goods.

Specialized industries, including steel (Pittsburgh) and meat packing (Chicago)


The Growth of U.S. Cities

Efforts to solve immigration problems


Settlement houses
= community centers that were established to help address the needs of the city's poor people.

Jane Addams
was a famous Progressive Era reformer who founded Hull House, a famous settlement house in Chicago

Political machines
, although often corrupt, gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants (looking to offer jobs, housing)

Chinese and Irish
immigrant faced intense discrimination upon arrival.

1882 Chinese Exclusion Act-

prohibited the immigration of Chinese people to the U.S.

Was originally for 10 years, but was extended until 1943.

African Americans
continued to face discrimination and violence as well. (Remember Jim Crow laws, or Black Codes?).

Other groups that faced discrimination: Mexicans, Native Americans, and other immigrant groups, such as
Italians, Polish, and Jews
faced discrimination as well.

Anti-semetism
= hatred or discrimination of Jewish people
Ellis Island
Ellis Island opened in 1892, as the largest federal immigration station.

Millions of new immigrants would enter the U.S. first through Ellis Island in NYC, where they would undergo a medical examination and be and processed.

.Approximately 20 percent of immigrants inspected at Ellis Island were temporarily detained, half for health reasons and half for legal reasons.
Different Responses to African American Discrimination
Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. DuBois
Believed equality could be achieved through vocational education. Believed political equality would later follow.

Accepted social segregation

Established the Tuskegee Institute for agricultural education.
Believed in full political, civil, and social rights for African Americans.

Did not believe "separate" could be "equal." Did NOT accept segregation or discrimination.

John D Rockefeller
Owned a very profitable OIL business
Andrew Carnegie
Owned a very profitable STEEL business
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Became very wealthy from RAILROADS and shipping business
An estimated 40% of Americans can trace at least one ancestors back to Ellis Island.
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/webcast.htm
Inventions and Change
• Electric lighting and mechanical uses of electricity
(1879)


Invention of the airplane (1903)

The Wright brothers



• Telephone service
(1877)
Use of the assembly line; automobile
(1913)
Rise of mechanization
Important b/c it made the car affordable. Cheap, mass production.
Thomas Edison
Alexander Bell
Henry Ford
Factors that contributed to Industrialization (the growth of industry)

• Access to raw materials and energy

• Availability of work force due to immigration

• New Inventions

• Financial resources

Improved workplace safety conditions

Reduced work hours (8 hour workday)

Placed restrictions on child labor

Better wages (Minimum wage)

Improved sanitation (food inspection,living conditions, housing)

End government corruption

Women's suffrage movement (19th Amendment)

Prohibition movement (18th amendment)

Assimilation and services for immigrants (Settlement houses)
19th Amendment
: Women gained the right to vote (1920)

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked for women’s suffrage.

Susan B. Anthony is on our dollar coin today.

Women's Suffrage Movement
Suffrage= the right to vote
http://www.history.com/topics/prohibition/videos/bet-you-didnt-know-prohibition?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false

http://www.history.com/topics/andrew-carnegie/videos/homestead-strike

A reform movement that worked to improve conditions for people, especially workers, women, and immigrants.
J.P. Morgan
= accumulated great wealth in banking
Workers often worked 14 hour days in overcrowded conditions. In NYC at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory there was a fire that killed 148 people.

Children would operate dangerous equipment for little to no pay. No laws on child labor until 1936.
Fought for women to gain the right to vote
Turn of 19th century (late 1800s, early 1900s): Most immigrants came from Europe (Italy, Ireland, Germany, Poland)
http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/alexander-graham-bell
Full transcript