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Transcript of Persia
-Persian scientists contributed to the current
understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy TECHNOLOGY Kenna Justice, Kaylee Kinsfather, Anna Wright, Liliya Orlov, Ashlea Nguyen Ideologies Economics Religion Timeline The Persian empire attempted to govern with the mindset that all racial groups had equal responsibilities and rights. Social Organized state religion: Zoroastrianism -saddle bag
-shield boss Golden Age Academics Founded in Persia, is one of the most practiced religion in history. Zoroastrianism -pull saw
-broad head arrows
-royal roads -God is Ahura Mazda
-Dualism (Cosmic and Moral)
-importance of the
-Helpers, not servants to God
-Men/women, rich/poor all
equal in the eyes of God
-First ecological religion Silver Age Bronze Age Copper Age
Persian rulers claimed the proud title of “King of Kings” and demanded total obedience from their subjects. ROYAL ROAD
-Newly dug canal linking with the Nile and Red Sea
-1,700 miles long AGRICULTURE History and Mythology -Zoroaster was 30 years old when Vohu Manah (Good Mind) brought Zoroaster to God (Ahura Mazda) and Zoroaster was the one who brought the word of Ahura Mazda to the people.
-Persia was ruled by Zoroastrians ever since Cyrus the Great. The guidelines that all Zoroastrians live by is the law that all of Persia lived by.
-Tolerance of other religions within Persia was abandoned Justifying conquests of empires -algebra and chemistry,
-invented wind-powered machines
-the first distillation of alcohol.
-Palaces, audience halls
-monuments Persians defeated the Chaldean/Babylonian Empire 525 BC 5 Wealth and power was reflected in technology. Seen in imperial structures/centers Trade Routes Spoke Indo-European
Wrote in Cuneiform
Used vertical wedges to separate words
5 logograms represented commonly used words
Had a small number system: Writing/ Language Training for the Army Initiation Ceremony BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/>. WORKS CITED PAGE: Archers Military Death of Xerxes = lack of strong hand, weak rulers, revolts, tax increase, hoarding gold and
silver. 400 BCE: Cyrus the Younger revolted and died in battle, but his soldiers lived on and caused turmoil within Persia. Alexander the Great saw the weakness and invaded Persia. Persia's empire rose and fell until 1500 BC under the Safavid Dynasty(modern day Iran). Fall of the Persian Empire 1. Marathon Greco-Persian War "Persian Culture (700 to 332 BC)." AngelFire. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. Zoroaster -Trade was extensive
-Bazaar, shawl, sash, tiara, orange, lemon, melon, peach, spinach, and asparagus.
-Trade was one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute. Persians conquer the Egyptians Alexander the Great invading Persia -AGRICULTURE was the mainstay of Persian's economy in 19th century.
-irrigation and seeding
-the raising of livestock
-Different ranges of crops cultivated, from wheat, barley, and rice
-cash crops were of tobacco and opium.
- Also developed forestry and fishing (subjects about which very little is known and even less has been written, until now.) symbol of Zoroastrianism http://skepticism-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/images/jreviews/Battle_of_Issus.jpg http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_l0sa94ZLK11qbz35lo1_400.png Cyrus The Great First Shah (Great King) He conquered the Medians, unifying the kingdoms of the Medes and the Persians Conquered Babylon; allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple of Solomon Killed while leading an invasion East (557-530 BCE) Frye, David. "Battle of Thermopylae." Editorial. Military History Jan.-Feb. 2006: n. pag.Greco-Persian Wars: Battle of Thermopylae. Military History Magazine, 12 June 2006. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.historynet.com/greco-persian-wars-battle-of-thermopylae.htm>. (522-486 BCE) Darius I Nemati, Akbar. "Cyrus The Great."Cyrus The Great. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cyrusgreat.com/>. "Historical Character Directory."History Curriculum Homeschool. Heritage History, n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=characters>
Fisher, Casey. "Persian Empire." Persian Empire. N.p., 2009. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.worldology.com/Iraq/persian_empire.htm>. Divided the Persian Empire into provinces for easier governing Imperial Spies known as "Ears and Eyes of the King" enabled Darius I to receive news intra-Empire Main strike weapon: Cavalry Darius I was known for organization of the empire Taxes on each province Silver and Gold Coinage System Took years to form a grand army Could contain 50 or more ethnic groups 3 historical battles Infantry Armies could number up to hundreds of thousands 2. Thermopylae 3. Salamis Battle of Marathon Waited out the battle for 9 Days Persian Army was around 50,000 Athenian Army around 10,000 First battle Greek had won against Persians -Killed 6400 Persians
-Killed 192 Athenians The Persian's syllabary/symbols Logograms 500 - 448 BC 539 BC Greco-Persian Wars Led by Xerxes (Darius' Son) Battle of Thermopylae Led by Darius I Achaemenid Empire is found 553 BC 490 BC Darius I becomes king 522 BC Spent more than 4 years gathering a grand army Armor consisted of helmets and shields Swords, Daggers, Bows and Battle Axes 480 BC Family Persians won due to a betrayal from the Greek Family was the basic social unit.
Fathers had tyrannical authority
Children were mostly seen as heirs therefore polygamy was encouraged
Incest was against Persian customs and laws.
Divorce is almost unheard of. The Family: just relatives
The Clan: Multiple families
The Tribe: Multiple Clans Persian Army more than 200,000 The clan was the basic unit of identification, but not social function
Made up of several families The Clan Greek army about 7,000 Persians did not know how to swim Battle of Salamis Made up of multiple clans
Also used as an identification
Divisions in society were made at the tribal level
Entire tribes were made up of nomadic herders or settled farmers, these tribes were all peasants The Tribe 500 BCE Led by Xerxes Greeks had the advantage of the sea Persian battle ships were rammed by the Greeks Persians were led into a narrow trap 480 BCE Xerxes fled at the sight of his sunken army Surviving Persians were killed off “Royal Road” First postal system invented Main source of revenue was trade Dandamayev, Muhammad A. "Achamenid Education System." ACHAEMENID EDUCATION SYSTEM. The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS), n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Culture/education_achaemenid.htm>. Only boys were aloud to be educated
They were trained in:
Horsemanship, swordsmanship, archery, justice, obedience, endurance, telling the truth, etc.
Reading, literacy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. Persian Warriors Mshamma. "Google Images." Google Images. N.p., 19 July 2003. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en>. 10 years of hard military training
Bow and Javelin
Forage for food
Preparation of food
Make and repairing weapons
Main focus: "ride well, shoot straight, and tell the truth" "Training." Training. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gabrmetz/gabr0010.htm>. Persian Army Ronquillo, Ulysses. "Mannaismayaadventure's Blog." Mannaismayaadventure's Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://mannaismayaadventure.com/2010/11/20/cyrus-cylinder-of-achaemenid-persian-king-cyrus-the-great/>. Messenger for the Persian Army "Google Images." Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1>. "History of Iran: Achaemenid Empire." History of Iran: Achaemenid Empire. Iran Chamber Society, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.iranchamber.com/history/achaemenids/achaemenids.php>. Trade There were many sets of ideas that constituted Persia's goals, expectations, and actions during the time of the empire. Trade was really important for Persia's economy and income
The Persian words for their most traded items became familiar in Middle East and entered English language
Shawl, Tiara, Lemon, Melon, Peach, Spinach, Asparagus, etc. Foreign empire
-failed to pay tribute
-threatened the empire Persia invades Greece Don't rebel, we're cool. Persian imperial ideology emphasized the benefits of empire, unlike other empires that threatened their civilians with military forces if they didn't comply to their law. The Silk Road Silk Road
Royal Road Persian ruins "Trade in Persian Empire." Trade in Persian Empire. Persian Empire History Facts for Kids, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.persianempires.com/trade-in-persian-empire.html>. The Royal Road Satraps/Satrapies Ruled by a king whose word was law The Persian Empire was divided into twenty provinces, or satrapies, each ruled by a governor called a satrap.
The satraps were normally Persians or Medes to help ensure their loyalty.
They ruled and lived like minor kings in their own palaces.
Some satraps became strong enough to threaten the king.