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Johann Gottlieb Fichte: German Idealism Philosopher
Transcript of Johann Gottlieb Fichte: German Idealism Philosopher
Connection to Kant
Fichte was greatly influenced by Kant's philosophy, claiming that it ; produced a "revolution" in the manner of his thinking (Stanford)
Kant's philosophy was based on the idea "that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the 'Categorical Imperative'" (Stanford)
Fichte produced a manuscript in which he concluded that the only revelation consistent with the Critical philosophy is moral law itself - Kant was sufficiently impressed and helped publish this into Fichte's first book "Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation" (Stanford)
Fichte's book was first believed to be written by Kant himself - When revealed that the real author was Fichte, he became an instant philosophical celebrity
Fichte's Philosophy: Wissenschaftslehre
developed own system of transcendental philosophy called "Wissenschaftslehre" translated roughly into the "science of knowledge/science" (Internet Encyclopedia)
developed in response to Maimon and Schulze's critiques of Kant's Critical philosophy - came to the conclusion that the Critical philosophy needed new foundations (Stanford)
Fichte often claimed "he remained true to the spirit, if not the letter, of Kant's thought" (Internet Encyclopedia)
contained Fichte's effort to ground the entire system upon the bare concept of subjectivity, or the "pure I"
he changed his presentation of his thoughts from his early work to his late work. He always said, however, that his basic philosophy remained the same
Comparison to Socrates
"The choice of class is a free choice; therefore no man whatever ought to be compelled to any particular class, nor to be shut out. Every individual action, as well as every general arrangement, which proceeds on such compulsion, is unjust." (Fichte, Johann Gottlieb and William Smith (Translator). The Vocation of the Scholar. 1847.)
Fichte authored many works himself while Socrates did not write anything himself. His ideas exist in print due to his followers, such as Plato, writing down his ideas.
Fichte was seen as the figure whose thought helped to explain the development of German idealism from Kant’s Critical philosophy to Hegel’s philosophy of Spirit
helped create German nationalism with his essay "Addresses to the German Nation" (Stanford)
the study of Fichte's work was neglected until the last four decades, but now he is seen as a unique philosopher and not just a connection between Kant and Hegel (Stanford)
has come to influence many modern thinkers, including American transcendentalists like Emerson
born on May 1, 1762 in Rammenau to a family of poor ribbon makers
developed a radically revised and rigorously systematic version of transcendental idealism, called "Wissenschaftslehre" (Stanford)
was influenced by Kant's works and later was called the bridge between Kant and Hegel
"he worked at the University of Jena and wrote several books on his philosophy
by: Hyunji Do
"What sort of philosophy one chooses depends on what sort of person one is." - Fichte
"There exists in man the idea of Reason, and of reasonable acts and thoughts, and he is necessitated to realize this idea not only within himself but also without himself. It is thus one of his wants that there should be around him reasonable beings like himself."
“The Doctrine of Knowledge, apart from all special and definite knowing, proceeds immediately upon Knowledge itself, in the essential unity in which it recognizes Knowledge as existing; and it raises this question in the first place - How this Knowledge can come into being, and what it is in its inward and essential Nature?”
This image is a modern attempt at explaining idealistic philosophy simply. It says "Experience is ultimately based on mental activity. It is contrasted with realism, in which the external world is said to have an apparent absolute existence. The only things which can be directly known for certain are just ideas."
Here is a statue of Immanual Kant who influenced Fichte a great deal.
argument of intersubjectivity is central to conception of "selfhood" developed in his book
the "I" must set itself up as an individual in order to set itself up at all by recognizing itself as it were to a calling or summons (Aufforderung) by other free individual(s) — called, moreover, to limit its own freedom out of respect for the freedom of the other. The same condition applied and applies, of course, to the other(s) in its development. Hence, mutual recognition of rational individuals turns out to be a condition necessary for the individual 'I' in general. (Stanford)
transcendental philosophy can explain that the world must have space, time, and causality, but it can never explain why objects have the particular sensible properties they happen to have or why I am this determinate individual rather than another.
Bowman, Curtis. "Johann Gottlieb Fichte." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/fichtejg/>. This is an encyclopedic page on Fichte and summarizes Fichte's life through by breaking down important periods in his life. It also gives a detailed summary on how his most famous work, Wissenschaftslehre, was created on and developed.
Breazeale, Dan. "Johann Gottlieb Fichte." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Spring 2014 ed. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/johann-fichte/>. This is a reliable source that has a broad overview of Fichte's life and his philosophy. It gives a detailed timeline of his life and outlines how he created his philosophy, who he was influenced by, and what his lasting impact was on the philosophical world.
Carreras, Genis. "Idealism." Business Boom Collective. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://businessboomcollective.com/0601/simple-the-new-clever-graphic-design-by-genis-carreras/>.
Fichte Quote. Izquote. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://izquotes.com/quote/61488>.
German Philosophers. Division of the Humanities. U of Chicago, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://philosophy.uchicago.edu/workshops/>.
"Grave of Fichte and Wife." Wikimedia Commons. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grave_of_Fichte_and_wife_1.JPG>.
Immanuel Kant. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immanuel_Kant>.
"Johann Gottlieb Fichte." Encyclopedia Brittanica. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Encyclopedia Brittanica. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/205990/Johann-Gottlieb-Fichte>. This is an encyclopedic page on the life of Fichte and his influence on the philosophic community. It gives key periods of Fichte's life in chronological order, detailing Fichte's philosophical developments over time.
"Johann Gottlieb Fichte Quotes." BrainyQuote. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/j/johann_gottlieb_fichte.html>. This is another website that gives multiple quotes said by Fichte.
"Johann Gottlieb Fichte - Quotes." The European Graduate School. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://www.egs.edu/library/johann-gottlieb-fichte/quotes/>. This website was used to gather famous quotes said by Fichte and other famous lines from his written work.
Johnson, Robert. "Kant's Moral Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/>. This is an encyclopedic page on Kant's famous philosophy, the Moral philosophy (otherwise known as Critical Philosophy). It outlines specific key points within the philosophy and how Kant developed his ideas.
McQuillan, Colin. "German Idealism." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/germidea/>. This was an encyclopedic page that gives a summary on what German Idealism is. It outlines key philosophers that influenced this movement and their famous works.