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Timeline of Educational Reform
Transcript of Timeline of Educational Reform
1950's - current
events significant to science education are in red
U.S. Supreme Court announces its decision in the case of Brown v. Board. of Education of Topeka, ruling that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal," thus overturning its previous ruling in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Brown v. Board of Education is actually a combination of five cases from different parts of the country. It is a historic first step in the long and still unfinished journey toward equality in U.S. education.
First grader Ruby Bridges is the first African American to attend William Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans. She becomes a class of one as parents remove all Caucasian students from the school.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), signed by President Lyndon Johnson as part of his War on Poverty, provides guidance and federal funds that target poor children in America's public schools, known as Title I.
1975 - The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) becomes federal law. It requires that a free, appropriate public education, suited to the student's individual needs, and offered in the least restrictive setting be provided for all "handicapped" children. States are given until 1978 (later extended to 1981) to fully implement the law.
High Schools That Work, a school reform model targeting grades 9-12, is created by the Southern Regional Education Board in Atlanta, Georgia. It is geared towards increasing the achievement of all students with special emphasis on career-bound students by blending the content of traditional college prep studies with quality vocational and technical studies.
The U.S. Department of Education is created by combining offices of several federal agencies. Its original mission is to guarantee equal access to education and to promote educational excellence throughout the nation. Source: http://www.ed.gov/about/
February 1990: National Education Goals are announced by the President and adopted by the Governors. The six goals, later expanded to eight, are to be reached by the year 2000. Source: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/page1-7.htm
2001: Standards update: 22 of 45 states have adopted standards promoted by Goals 2000 and set forth by A Nation At Risk that require high school students to take at least four years of English, three years of math, three years of science, three years of history (and/or social studies), half a year of computer science and two years of a foreign language (for college bound students); six other states allow more "local control" at the district level in determining curriculum standards. In 1982 only 2% of graduates met these standards. Now, 15 of 51 states have a minimum competency test for graduating; 16 are planning to implement one in the future. Source: http://www-hoover.stanford.edu
The Second National Education Summit is held with 41 Governors in attendance, pledging their support to develop academic standards at the state and local level with the creation of Achieve, a bipartisan organization that serves as a national clearinghouse on standards, assessments and accountability. Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/
2010 - current
With the U.S. economy mired in a recession and employment remaining high, states have massive budget deficits. As many as 300,000 teachers face layoffs.
February 2005: At the National Education Summit, the nation's governors, executives and education leaders discuss an agenda for high school improvement that includes ways to strengthen graduation requirements, support students in achieving higher standards and improve high school and college data accountability systems. Source: http://www.nga.org
1965: A network of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (REL) are created under ESEA to develop and disseminate – in cooperation with schools, state education agencies and research universities – ideas and programs for improving educational practices throughout the country. Source: http://relnetwork.org/2003ar/history.html
The Comer Process, a comprehensive school reform strategy, is created by Dr. James Comer at Yale University and managed by Yale's School Development Program. It targets grades K-12 with an emphasis on mobilizing the entire community of adult caretakers to support students’ holistic development to bring about academic success.
April 1983: A Nation at Risk, a report by the Education Department’s National Commission on Excellence in Education, warns of a "rising tide of mediocrity" in American schools "that threatens our very future as a Nation." calls for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training. Among their recommendations is a forward-looking call for expanding high school requirements to include the study of computer science.
Source: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html 1983 - The report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education
Minnesota is one of the first states to pass public school choice laws, giving students the choice of attending any public school in the state. Previously, students were required to attend schools in their neighborhood and/or district.
President George H. Bush joins forces with Bill Clinton, then Governor of Arkansas, to hold the very first National Education Summit in Charlottesville, Virginia for the country's 50 governors with the intention of establishing education goals for the nation.
1990 National Educational Goals
1. All children will start school ready to learn.
2. The high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90%.
3. All students will become competent in challenging subject matter.
4. Teachers will have the knowledge and skills that they need.
5. U.S. students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement.
6. Every adult American will be literate.
7. Schools will be safe, disciplined, and free of guns, drugs and alcohol.
8. Schools will promote parental involvement and participation.
The National Education Goals Panel is created by President Bush and the states' governors to assess and report on state and national progress towards achieving the National Education Goals. The panel is composed of eight governors, four state legislators, four members of the U.S. Congress and two members appointed by the President. Source: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/
Milwaukee, Wisconsin establishes a voucher program enabling low-income children to attend a private or religious school of their choice. It is the first school choice program in the U.S. to provide funding to private schools in place of a public education. Source: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Education/lm9.cfm
March 1994: Goals 2000: Educate America Act is signed by President Clinton, supporting states to develop standards for what every child should learn and achieve. The act also provides the necessary resources to states and communities so that all students reach those standards, appropriating $400 million in 1994.
October 1994: Improving America's Schools Act, a reauthorization of the 1965 ESEA, is passed. In conjunction with Goals 2000, it provides additional funding to improve the way education is delivered, upgrade instructional and professional development to align with high standards, strengthen accountability and promote the coordination of resources to improve education for all children. Also, The Regional Educational Laboratory Program, established in 1965 with a network of 10 labs, is reauthorized (Public Law 103-227) with the mission of promoting knowledge-based school improvement to help all students meet high standards and to help the nation meet the National Education Goals. Source: http://cwx.prenhall.com
Under the Improving America's Schools Act, Congress establishes 15 federally funded comprehensive school assistance centers nationwide to support states, districts and schools with reform aimed at improving the academic performance of all students. Source: http://www.wested.org/cs/we/view/pg/23
November 1997: The Comprehensive School Reform Program, authored by Congressmen Obey and Porter and part of the Labor-HHS-Education Appropriation Act, awards schools in need of improvement at least $50,000 per year (renewable for three years) towards comprehensive and coherent reform. These funds will support technical assistance and start-up costs of selected comprehensive reform models.
In his State of the Union address, President Clinton urges states to take more action and responsibility by challenging them to adopt high national standards and test all fourth graders in reading and all eighth graders in math by 1999 to be sure the standards are met.
January 1997: Education Week develops an annual state-by-state analysis, Quality Counts: A Report Card on the Condition of Public Education, to measure student achievement, standards and assessment, teaching quality, school climate and resources. This first report claims "despite 15 years of earnest efforts to improve public schools and raise student achievement, states haven't made much progress."
January 2002: No Child Left Behind Act is signed by President George Bush and calls for greater accountability of student performance by requiring states to issue annual report cards on school performance and statewide results. Among other provisions it also promotes stronger reading programs and pushes for improved teacher quality. Source: http://www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2002/01/01082002.html
Though the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has been in existence since 1969 with voluntary participation, beginning with the 2002-2003 school year states that want to receive Title I grants from the federal government must participate in the biennial fourth grade and eighth grade NAEP reading and mathematics assessments. Similarly, school districts that receive Title I funds and are selected for the NAEP sample are also required to participate in NAEP reading and mathematics assessments at fourth and eighth grades.
2002: National Education Goals Panel is closed. It was established in 1990 as an outgrowth of the first National Education Summit that identified six goals (later expanded to eight) to be reached by 2000. Many of the goals were not attained. Source: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/negp/feedback.htm
1950: Public Law 81-740 grants a federal charter to the FFA and recognizes it as an integral part of the program of vocational agriculture.
The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Cassification of Educational Goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain is published. Often referred to simply as “Bloom’s Taxonomy” because of its primary author, Benjamin S. Bloom, the document actually has four coauthors (M.D. Engelhart, E.J. Furst, W.H. Hill, and David Krathwohl). Still widely used today, Bloom’s Taxonomy divides the cognitive domain into six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis.
Federal troops enforce integration in Little Rock, Arkansas as the Little Rock 9 enroll at Central High School.
1958: At least partially because of Sputnik (launched the previous year), science and science education become important concerns in the U.S., resulting in the passage of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) which authorizes increased funding for scientific research as well as science, mathematics, and foreign language education.
1959: The ACT Test is first administered.
In the case of Engel v. Vitale, the U. S. Supreme Court rules that the state of New York's Regents prayer violates the First Amendment. The ruling specifies that "state officials may not compose an official state prayer and require that it be recited in the public schools of the State at the beginning of each school day. . . "
1963: Samuel A. Kirk uses the term "learning disability" at a Chicago conference on children with perceptual disorders. The term sticks, and in 1964, the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, now the Learning Disabilities Association of America, is formed. Today, nearly one-half of all students in the U.S. who receive special education have been identified as having learning disabilities.
In response to the large number of Cuban immigrant children arriving in Miami after the Cuban Revolution, Coral Way Elementary School starts the "nation's first bilingual public school in the modern era." Source: https://sites.google.com/site/hansellhollingsheadfoerst/useful-links
The Higher Education Act is signed at Southwest Texas State College on November 8. It increases federal aid to higher education and provides for scholarships, student loans, and establishes a National Teachers Corps.
Project Head Start, a preschool education program for children from low-income families, begins as an eight-week summer program. Part of the "War on Poverty," the program continues to this day as the longest-running anti-poverty program in the U.S.
Lyndon Johnson signs the Immigration Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, on October.3rd. It abolishes the National Origins Formula and results in unprecedented numbers of Asians and Latin Americans immigrating to the United States, making America's classrooms much more diverse.
The Bilingual Education Act, also know as Title VII, becomes law.
After many years of controversy, The Bilingual Education Act, also know as Title VII (since 1968) is repealed and replaced by the No Child Left Behind Act. Source: https://sites.google.com/site/hansellhollingsheadfoerst/useful-links
1968: The "Monkey Trial" revisited! In the case of Epperson et al. v. Arkansas, the U.S. supreme Court finds the state of Arkansas' law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in a public school or university unconstitutional.
McCarver Elementary School in Tacoma, Washington becomes the nation's first magnet school.
Herbert R. Kohl's book, The Open Classroom, helps to promote open education, an approach emphasizing student-centered classrooms and active, holistic learning. The conservative back-to-the-basics movement of the 1970s begins at least partially as a backlash against open education. Source: https://sites.google.com/site/hansellhollingsheadfoerst/useful-links
In his controversial book, "Deschooling Society", Ivan Illich sharply criticizes traditional schools and calls for the end of compulsory school attendance.
1970: Jean Piaget's book, "The Science of Education", is published. His Learning Cycle model helps to popularize discovery-based teaching approaches, particularly in the sciences.
The case of Diana v. California State Board results in new laws requiring that children referred for possible special education placement be tested in their primary language.
In the case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania, the federal court rules that students with mental retardation are entitled to a free public education.
The Indian Education Act becomes law and establishes "a comprehensive approach to meeting the unique needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students"
The case of Mills v. the Board of Education of Washington, D.C. extends the PARC v. Pennsylvania ruling to other students with disabilities and requires the provision of "adequate alternative educational services suited to the child's needs, which may include special education .
The Equal Educational Opportunities Act is passed. It prohibits discrimination and requires schools to take action to overcome barriers which prevent equal protection. The legislation has been particularly important in protecting the rights of students with limited English proficiency..
Federal Judge Arthur Garrity orders busing of African American students to predominantly white schools in order to achieve racial integration of public schools in Boston, MA. White parents protest, particularly in South Boston.
1975 - The National Association of Bilingual Education is founded.
1975 - Newsweek's December 8 cover story, "Why Johnny Can't Write," heats up the debate about national literacy and the back-to-the-basics movement.
1977 - Apple Computer, now Apple Inc., introduces the Apple II, one of the first successful personal computers. It and its offspring, the Apple IIe, become popular in schools as students begin to learn with computer games such as Oregon Trail and Odell Lake.
The Refugee Act of 1980 is signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on March 18th. Building on the Immigration Act of 1965, it reforms immigration law to admit refugees for humanitarian reasons and results in the resettlement of more than three-million refugees in the United States including many children who bring special needs and issues to their classrooms.
Ronald Reagan is elected president, ushering in a new conservative era, not only in foreign and economic policy, but in education as well. However, he never carries out his pledge to reduce the federal role in education by eliminating the Department of Education, which had become a Cabinet level agency that same year under the Carter administration..
John Holt's book, Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education, adds momentum to the homeschooling movement.
Madeline C. Hunter's book, Mastery Teaching, is published. Her direct instruction teaching model becomes widely used as teachers throughout the country attend her workshops and become "Hunterized."
In the case of Plyler v. Doe, the U.S. Supreme Court rules in a 5-4 decision that Texas law denying access to public education for undocumented school-age children violates the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. The ruling also found that school districts cannot charge tuition fees for the education of these children.
Public Law 105-332, the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act, is passed with the goal of increasing the quality of vocational-technical education in the U.S.
2006: The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act (PL 109-270) is reauthorized for the third time. since it's existence.
The Emergency Immigrant Education Act is enacted to provide services and offset the costs for school districts that have unexpectedly large numbers of immigrant students.
In the case of Wallace v, Jaffree, the U.S. Supreme Court finds that Alabama statutes authorizing silent prayer and teacher-led voluntary prayer in public schools violate the First Amendment.
1986: Christa McAuliffe is chosen by NASA from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher-astronaut, but her mission ends tragically as the Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after its launch, killing McAuliffe and the other six members of the crew.
1987: In the case of Edwards v. Aguillard, et al. the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a Louisiana requiring that creation science be taught along with evolution.
The University of Phoenix establishes their "online campus," the first to offer online bachelor's and master's degrees. It becomes the "largest private university in North America."
Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), renames and amends Public Law 94-142. In addition to changing terminology from handicap to disability, it mandates transition services and adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the eligibility list.
Teach for America is formed, reestablishing the idea of a National Teachers Corps.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990, the first comprehensive reform since 1965, increases annual immigration to 700,000 adding to the diversity of our nation and its schools. 55,000 diversity visas "allocated to natives of a country that has sent fewer than 50,000 immigrants to the United States over the previous five years."
The smart board (interactive white board) is introduced by SMART Technologies.
: Jacqueline and Martin Brooks' In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms is published. It is one many books and articles describing constructivism, a view that learning best occurs through active construction of knowledge rather than its passive reception. Constructivist learning theory, with roots such as the work of Dewey, Bruner, Piaget, and Vygotsky, becomes extremely popular in the 1990s.
1993: The Massachusetts Education Reform Act requires a common curriculum and statewide tests (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System). Other states follow Massachusetts' lead and implement similar, high-stakes testing programs.
The Improving America's Schools Act (IASA) is signed into law by President Bill Clinton on January 25th. It. reauthorizes the ESEA of 1965 and includes reforms for Title I; increased funding for bilingual and immigrant education; and provisions for public charter schools, drop-out prevention, and educational technology.
Georgia becomes the first state to offer universal preschool to all four year olds whose parents choose to enroll them.
James Banks' book, Multicultural Education: Transformative Knowledge and Action, makes an important contribution to the growing body of scholarship regarding multiculturalism in education
President Bill Clinton signs the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 into law.. It prohibits states from offering higher education benefit based on residency within a state (in-state tuition) to undocumented immigrants unless the benefit is available to any U.S. citizen or national.
: California voters pass Proposition 227, requiring that all public school instruction be in English.
The Higher Education Act is amended and reauthorized requiring institutions and states to produce "report cards" about teacher education
Two Columbine High School students go on a killing spree that leaves 15 dead and 23 wounded at the Littleton, Colorado school, making it the nations' deadliest school shooting incident at the time.
: Diane Ravitch's book, Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms , criticizes progressive educational policies and argues for a more traditional, academically-oriented education. Her views are reminiscent of the "back to the basics" movement of the late 1970s and 1980s.
The Higher Education Act is again amended and reauthorized, expanding access to higher education for low and middle income students, providing additional funds for graduate studies, and increasing accountability.
H.R. 1350, The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEA 2004) changes take affect, they include modifications in the IEP process and procedural safeguards, increased authority for school personnel in special education placement decisions, and alignment of IDEA with the No Child Left Behind Act. It also requires school districts to use the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach as a means for the early identification of students at risk for specific learning disabilities with the overall goal of reducing the need for special education services.
The American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) became the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), joining the trend toward use of the term intellectual disability in place of mental retardation.
Cho Seung-Hui, a 23-year-old student, kills two students in a dorm and then 30 others in a classroom building at Virginia Tech University. Fifteen others are wounded, replacing Columbine as the deadliest school shooting incident in U.S. history.
Barack Obama defeats John McCain and is elected the 44th President of the United States.
2009: The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 provides more than 90-billion dollars for education, nearly half of which goes to local school districts to prevent layoffs and for school modernization and repair. It includes the Race to the Top initiative, a 4.35-billion-dollar program designed to induce reform in K-12 education.
2009: The Common Core State Standards Initiative, "a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers," is launched.
Quest to Learn (Q2L), the first school to teach primarily through game-based learning, opens in September in New York City with a class of sixth graders There are plans to add a grade each year until the school serves students in grades six through twelve.
President Barack Obama announces on September 23 that the U.S. Department of Education is inviting each State educational agency to request flexibility regarding some requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act.
In his State of the Union Address, President Barack Obama calls for requiring students to stay in school until they graduate from high school or reach age 18.
August 2012: 32 states and Washington, D.C. have been granted waivers from some No Child Left Behind requirements. However, the waivers for eight states are "conditional," meaning some aspects of their plans are still under review.
Adam Lanza, 20, kills his mother and then invades Sandy Hook Elementary School where he kills 20 children and six adults, making this the second deadliest mass shooting by a single person in U.S. history
The Chicago Board of Education votes to close 50 schools, the largest mass closing in U.S. history. Mayor Rahm Emanuel and CPS officials claim the closures are not only necessary to reduce costs, but will also improve educational quality.. Other cities, including Detroit, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C., have also recently closed large numbers of public schools.
1993: Project 2061, or Benchmarks for Science Literacy, provides teachers with statements of what students need to know in science, math, and technology by the grades 2, 5, 8, and 12. It gives recommendations at each grade level for reasonable progress toward science literacy in order for educators to design a core curriculum.
2002: The Math and Science Partnership Program (MSP) was run under the No Child Left Behind Act which set many of its guidelines. The MSP increased funding in education focusing on training teachers to teach math and science more efficiently by incorporating the use of math and science lab kits, lowering class sizes, and encouraging science enrichment programs
2005: Tapping Americas Potential, 15 business organizations recognized that the United States was falling behind in science relative to the world. They collaborated in an attempt to double the number of STEM graduates in the United States with bachelor’s degrees. They decided that they had to improve math and science education, recruit and retain foreign talent, and increase funding in the research of math and science.
2013: Next Generation Science StandardsThe National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Achieve are working together to rewrite science standards and curriculum in the United States.