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River -

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Ashley Jacob

on 11 September 2016

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Transcript of River -

River - A Case Study of the Periyar River
Periyar River
Socio-EConomic Importance
Present Situation at periyar
Over-extraction and over-exploitation of Periyar's waters has made it highly polluted.
Sources of pollution in Periyar river can be categorized as

Sewage and garbage.

Agricultural run-off.

Industrial pollution.
From the relentless petitions from GREENPEACE and other environmentalists the
The State Pollution Control Board (PCB) of Kerala has decided to keep a close watch on the ecological status of Periyar and has introduced a 24-hour monitoring system.

However this is not enough.
From the present analysis of available data it may be concluded that more investigations should be conducted on unexposed but vital components of this river system which
includes significant areas like fastly disappearing biodiversity, dangerous level of industrial pollution and its multidimensional impacts on river system and local inhabited area, etc.
There is still a lot more to do to save the river from destruction.
The effectiveness of the developing projects to save Periyar could be enhanced if these efforts could be integrated and well-accepted within the long-term objectives of the cities with an adequate attention to the disposal of wastes.
Irrespective of its status as the life line of kerala, there is not much information on the ecological parameters of the river.This is a barrier in the long journey to save the Periyar.
People have to be more vigilant of the domestic usage of the river.
Industries can be put for monitoring and its effluents can be put for high level purification before discharging.
Features of a river
On the way of its journey ,a river may have possess different features.The journey of a river can be divided into upper course,middle course and lower course.
Periyar is also known as The Life Line of Kerala
The Location Map of the Periyar River

Periyar River is Kerala’s longest river
which is known to have the largest discharge potential.

The river is formed at the border of Tamil Nadu, in the Western Ghats.

It moves north where it falls into the Periyar Lake which is actually a reservoir.

The river flows north and then enters Kerala.

It finally empties into the Lakshwadeep sea.

Fact File
Anamudi peak, on the right, is the highest point of the Periyar basin at 2,695 metres (8,842 ft).
The route of the Periyar River
Angamaly to Kochi come under the most industrialized zone of the Periyar river basin with more than 2500 small scale industries .

The major types of the industries are pesticides, chemicals industries, petroleum refining and heavy metal processing, radioactive mineral processing, mercury products, etc.

Industrial units located on the banks of the Periyar pose a threat to the environment and the health of people in the neighbourhood.
Industries on the Periyar
Indiscriminate discharge
of effluents into the river.
Towards the mouth of the river, researchers have found high levels of DDT, lead, cyanide and mercury produced by local industry, agriculture and domestic waste.
Enviornment Pollution Control Board testing the water
The pollution poses a health risk to humans and also destabilises the aquatic environment.
This also resulted in diseases like cancer, congenital birth defects, bronchitis, asthma and stomach ulcers in the local population.
Periyar turns a dumping yard for effluents !
Eloor — a small island on the Periyar river
recognized as one of
the toxic hotspots in the world,
is responsible for discharging hazardous effluents into the riversuch as
heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, ammonia, phosphates, domestic and untreated waste water.

This island is one of the main reason of the exploitation and pollution of the Periyar river.
Discolouration of the river
The periyar is both famous and important in the cultural,economic and social fields.
The mountain ranges where Periyar originates and the serene beautiful lakes reflecting the nature around along with forest abounding in attractive wild life are all perennial attractions to the tourists.

The Thekkady lake with boating facilities and the beautiful wild life sanctuary adjascent to it attracts nature lovers and tourists from all over the world.
The famous Malayattoor church, Thattekad bird sanctuary, the Queen of Arabian Sea(Kochi) etc are all spots of natural beauty along the banks of
Periyar .

Drinking Water Source
The Periyar is a perennial river and is used for
supplying drinking water
in Kerala and Tamil Nadu .
It also provides water to almost 5 drought affected areas in Tamil Nadu
It also acts as a major source for irrigation in many of the towns and villages in Kerala.
The Idukki dam is built on this river and electricity is generated from here. The largest Hydro electricity project called as Idukki Hydro Electric Project is commissioned here.
It is a very large dam and the biggest of its kind in Asia .
Idukki Hydro Electric Project
Idukki Dam
ELOOR- A Major Toxic Hotspot in Kerala
Lower reaches of Periyar was well known for easy availability of various types of tasty fishes like Pearlspot, Palankanni, Kanambu, etc. Along with a variety of shell fishes which includes crabs, prawn, and so on.
In the recent past, due to rapid progress in communications and commerce, there has been a swift increase in the urban areas along the river Periyar.

This has made it like a channel, receiving and transporting urban wastes away from the towns.

All the towns along its length contribute to the increasing pollution load with most it from domestic sources, i.e. from the settlements along the river course.
About 2.48 crore litres of effluents generated by nearly 55 industrial units in Eloor and nearby basins are let out into the Periyar River.
Studies have also found several openings into the Periyar in the form of drainage, pipelines and storage tanks discharging effluents into the Periyar.
Polluted or Poisoned !
Health Risk !
Statistics of the industries in Eloor
The State Pollution Control Board (PCB) to keep a close watch on the environmetal status of the river
Exploitation of the RIver
As the river moves through the upper course it cuts downwards. The gradient here is steep and the river channel is narrow. Vertical erosion in this highland part of the river helps to create
steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges.

As the river erodes the landscape in the upper course, it winds and bends to avoid areas of hard rock. This creates
interlocking spurs
, which look a bit like the interlocking parts of a zip.
When a river runs over alternating layers of hard and soft rock,
rapids and waterfalls
may form.
Upper-course river features
The formation of waterfalls and rapids
In the middle course the river has more energy and a high volume of water. The gradient here is gentle.The following features are formed during its lateral erosion:
Middle-Course Features
Lower-Course Features
In the lower course, the river has a high volume and a large discharge. However, the river in its last stage starts to slow down and mainly deposition takes place.
The river in its last stage too forms wide floodplains. A floodplain is the area around a river that is covered in times of flood. A floodplain is a very fertile area due to the depositionf alluvium. A build up of alluvium on the banks of a river can create levees, which raise the river bank.
A delta is formed when the river deposits its material faster than the sea can remove it.
Features in lower-course
Ashley Jacob 9ai
By:Ashley Jacob 9Ai
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