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Skeletal System

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by

Korina Martinez

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Skeletal System

Structure of Long Bone
Diaphysis
- shaft
Epiphysis
- ends
Medullary Cavity
- center of shaft, filled with yellow bone marrow, which is mostly fat cells, also cells that form white blood cells
Endosteum
- lines marrow cavity
Shaft is made of hard
compact bone
- ends are porous
spongy bone
. Ends contain red marrow where red blood cells are made.
Periosteum
- tough, outside covering of bone- contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves.

Joints
Joints
are points of contact between 2 bones- classified according to movement:
synarthroses
- immovable joints such as the adult cranial joints- sutures
amphiarthroses
- partially movable such as rib attachments and symphysis pubis
diathroses
- movable
Synovial Fluid
- lubricating substance in joints

Appendicular Skeleton
clavicle
- collar bone
scapula
- shoulder blade
humerus
- upper arm
radius
(thumb side) and ulna- lower arm
carpals
- wrist bones
metacarpals
- hand bones
phalanges
- fingers and toes
Functions
Supports
body and provides shape.
Protects
internal organs.
Movement
and anchorage of muscles.
Mineral storage
. (Calcium and phosphorus)
Hemopoiesis
-blood cell production

Osteocyte
- mature bone cell
Osteoblasts-
bone forming cell
Osteoclasts
- bone cells that secrete enzymes to break down bone
Skull
1 frontal
2 parietal
2 temporal
1 occipital
1 ethmoid
1 sphenoid
Skeletal System
Embryonic skeleton starts as
osteoblasts
then changes to
cartilage
At 8 weeks,
Ossification
begins. (Mineral matter begins to replace cartilage) Infant bones are soft because ossification is not complete at birth.

Axial & Appendicular Skeleton
Axial
- skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, hyoid




Appendicular
- shoulder girdle, arms, pelvis, legs
Spine-Vertebral Column
Encloses the spinal cord
Ribs and Sternum
Sternum
- breast bone- bottom tip is
Xiphoid
process
12
pairs of ribs-
first 7 are
true

ribs
- connected to sternum by cartilage
next 3 are
false ribs
- cartilage connects them to 7th rib (not sternum)
next 2 are
floating
2 nasal
1 vomer
2 inferior concha
2 maxilla
2 lacrimal
2 zygomatic
2 palatine
1 mandible
Vertebrae
- separated by pads of cartilage=intervertebral discs
Cervical
vertebrae (7)
Thoracic
vertebrae (12)
Lumbar
vertebrae (5)
Sacrum
5 fused bones
Coccyx
- tailbone made of 4 fused bones
Types of Motion
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Circumduction
Rotation
Pronation
Supination
Disorders of The Bones and Joints
Fracture
- a break
Treated by:
Closed Reduction
- cast or splint applied
Open Reduction
- surgical intervention with wires, metal plates or screws to hold the bones in alignment (internal fixation)


Dislocation
- bone displaced from proper position in joint
Sprain
- ligaments torn but joint not dislocated
Radiography
- x-ray, for diagnosis evaluation of bones
Diseases of bones
Bursitis
- inflammation of a bursa- joint sacs
Arthritis
- inflammation of one or more joints
Rheumatoid
Arthritis- chronic,
autoimmune
disease- joints become swollen and painful, joint deformities common
Osteoarthritis
- loss of articular cartilage, occurs with aging, 80% Americans affected, joint becomes enlarged and painful.

By: Korina Martinez and Joseph Darder
Abnormal curvatures of the spine:
Kyphosis
- thoracic spine hunchback
Lordosis
- lumbar spine swayback
Scoliosis
-side to side or lateral curvature causes unequal leg length
Osteoporosis
- A loss of bone mass leaves
the bone thinner, porous and more prone to fracture. Prevented by dietary calcium and exercise. Common in post-menopausal
women due to decreased estrogen
Osteomyelitis
- bone infection

Arthroscopy
- examination into joint using arthroscope with fiber optic lens, most knee injuries treated with arthroscopy.
Bone Marrow Aspiration-
removal of marrow sample with a needle for diagnostic purposes.
206 Bones
Articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between two bones
pelvis
- 3 bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis)
femur
- upper leg, largest bone in body
tibia
(shin bone) and
fibula
- lower leg
patella
- kneecap
tarsal bones
- ankle
calcaneus
- heel bone
metatarsals-
foot bones
Appendicular Skeleton
Bone Fomation
Fontanel
- Soft spot on baby's head
Ball and Socket Joint
bone with ball-shaped head fits
into concave socket of 2nd bone.
Shoulders and hips.
Hinge Joints
move in one direction or plane.
Knees, elbows, outer joints of fingers.

those with an extension rotate on
a 2nd, arch shaped bone.
Radius and ulna, atlas and axis.
Pivot Joint

flat surfaces glide across each other.
Vertebrae of spine. Wrist, foot, and clavicle
Gliding Joints-
Types of motion
Flexion
the act of bringing two bones closer together , decreasing the angle between them
Extension
straightening motion that increases the angle
Types of motion
Abduction
-movement of an extremity away from the midline
Adduction
-movement toward the midline

Types of motion
Circumduction
- movement in a circular motion
Rotation
- movement around a central axis , turning head from side to side
Types of Motion
Pronation
- the forearm turns the hand so the palm is downward
Supination
- the palm is turned upwards

pulling force used to hold the bones in
place- used for fractures of long bones

Traction
-
Closed or Simple fracture
- bone broken, broken ends do not break the skin
Open or Compound
- broken bones pierce the skin, can lead to infection
Greenstick
- in children, bone bent and splintered but never completely separates
Comminuted
- splintered or broken into many pieces
Spiral
- bone twists, resulting in one or more breaks
Fractures
Disorders
Gout
- increase of uric acid deposited in joint cavity, mostly the great toe in men.
Rickets
- found in children, caused by lack of Vitamin D, bones become soft (osteomalacia) Treated with calcium, Vitamin D and sunshine.

Diseases of bones
Whiplash
- trauma to the cervical vertebra, usually from a car accident
Herniated Disc
- intervertebral disc ruptures or protrudes, putting pressure on spinal nerve, usually lumbar-sacral region, treated with bedrest, traction and surgery.
Diseases of bones
Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment
:
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