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First Aid Lecture

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vivemalyn pineda

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of First Aid Lecture

is an immediate care given to a person who has been or suddenly taken ill.

1. To alleviate suffering.
2. To prevent added/further injury or danger.
3. To prolong life.

Aims of First Aid:
1. To preserve life.
2. To limit the effects of the condition
3. To promote recovery.

Guidelines in Giving Emergency Care
1. Planning of Action
2. Gathering needed materials
3. Initial responses:
sk for Help
o no further harm.
4. Instruction to helper/s
Action Principles
1. Survey the scene.
2. Activate medical assistance and transport facility.
3. Do primary survey to the victim.
4. Do a secondary Survey to the victim.
is a rapid movement of patient from unsafe place to a place of safety.
Emergency Rescue
1. For immediate Rescue without any assistance, drag or pull the victim.
2. Most of the one-man drag/carries and other transfer methods can be use as methods of rescue.
Methods of Rescue
Hindrances in Giving First-Aid
1. Unfavorable Surroundings.
2. Presence of Crowds.
3. Pressure from Victim of Relatives.
is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body either internal or external.
2 Classifications of Wound
1. Closed Wound.
In closed wounds, the skin is intact and the underlying tissue is not directly exposed to the outside world.
2. Open Wound
In open wounds, the skin is broken and the underlying tissue is exposed to the outside environment.
Types of Closed Wound
1. Contusions

3. Crushed Injury
Types of Open Wound
is caused by rubbing or scraping the skin against a hard, rough surface. Bleeding is usually limited, but it is important that the skin be cleaned in order to guard against infection.
is a cut caused by a knife, rough edge of metal, broken glass, a razor blade or some other sharp object. generally bleeds rapidly and heavily. If the cut is deep, muscles, tendons and nerves may be damaged.
is a jagged, irregular or blunt breaking or tearing of soft tissues, often resulting from mishandling tools and machinery and other accidents. Bleeding from a laceration may be rapid and extensive.
is a piercing wound that causes a small hole in the tissues. Such objects as nails, needles, ice picks etc. bleeding is slight or serious requires the attention of a health professional because of the
danger of tetanus.
is a forcible tearing or partial tearing away of tissues. It occurs in such accidents as gunshot wounds, explosions, animal bites or other body-crushing injuries. Bleeding is heavy and rapid.

a direct blunt trauma can damage the small blood vessels and capillaries, muscles and underlying tissue, as well the internal organs and, in some cases, bone. Contusions present as a painful bruise with reddish to bluish discoloration that spreads over the injured area of skin.

These include any injury that damages the small blood vessels and capillaries resulting in blood collecting and pooling in a limited space. Hematomas typically present as a painful, spongey rubbery lump-like lesion.
Crush injuries:

hese are usually caused by an external high pressure force that squeezes part of the body between two surfaces. The degree of injury and pain can range from a minor bruise to a complete destruction of the crushed area of the body, depending on the site, size, duration and power of the trauma.

Kinds of Bleeding
Arterial bleeding
Venous bleeding
Capillary bleeding
First Aid management: Severe Bleeding

bleeding by applying pressure, elevation and application of ice.
the wound with dressing and secure with bandage.
for the shock.
a physician.
First Aid Management: Minor Bleeding
Clean the wound with soap.
Apply anteseptics or antibiotic ointment/cream
Cover wound with dressing and bandage.
is an injury involving the skin, including muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels. This results from heat, chemicals, electricity, solar or other forms of radiation.
Thermal Burn
Burn Classification
3 Types of Burn
Thermal Burn
Thermal Burn.
Not necessarily caused by flames. Contact with hot objects, flammable vapor that ignites and steams or hot liquid are just some common causes of burns.
First Aid: 1st and 2nd Degree

immerse the burned area in cold water or by applying wet, cold cloth. If cold water is unavailable, cold liquid or drink to reduce burned skin temperature.

Cover the burn with dry non sticky, sterile dressing or or clean cloth.

Do not puncture the blisters, since this may cause infection.
First Aid: 3rd Degree

Cover the burn with dry non sticky, sterile dressing or or clean cloth.

treat the victim for shock by elevating the legs and keeping the victim warm with clean sheet or blanket.
Chemical Burn
causes tissue destruction until the chemical is removed.
First Aid Care
Remove the chemical by flushing with water.
Remove the contaminated clothing while flushing the water.
Flush for not more than 10 min. let the victim wash wit mild soap.
Cover the burned area with dressing, if large area, clean pillowcase.
Seek medical attention immediately for chemical burn.
if the chemical is in the eye, flood it for at least 20 minutes using low pressure.
Electrical Burn
exposure to electrical current . depending of the type of current , the voltage, the area of the body exposed and the duration of contact.

Unplug, disconnect or turn off the power. if possible call the power company to help.
Check ABC (Airway, Breathing, Circulation) provide Rescue breathe and apply CPR if necessary.
If the victim fell, check for spine injury.
Treat the victim for shock.
Seek medical attention immediately. Electrical injuries are treated in burn center.
Wait for 5-15 min. before the victim should be touched.
First Aid
Poison - is any substance: solid, liquid, or gas that tends to impair health of cause death when introduced into the body or onto the skin surface. It can be life threatening
Ways in which poisoning may occur
1. Inhalation - by breathing.
2. Ingestion - by mouth
3. Injection - by animal bites, stings, syringes.
3. Absorption - by skin contact.

1. To ensure
open airway
and administer artificial breathing if needed.
2. To
immobilized the injured par
t/avoid further injury.
3. To
arrange transportation
(EMS) emergency medical service.
4. To avoid subjecting the victim to unnecessary disturbances
Characteristics of first-aider:
ood judgement
Objective of First Aider
What to consider before a first aider acts?
1. Be aware of who you are and do not over react.
2. Be realistic.
3. know and acknowledge your limitations
4. know the facts.
5. Be prepared for contingencies
What to do?
1. Obtain consent, when possible.
2. Think the worse.
3. Call or send help.
4. Identify yourself to the victim.
5. Provide comfort and emotional support.
6. Respect the victim modesty and physical privacy.
7. Care for the most serious injuries privacy.
8. Assist the victim with his/her prescribed medication.
9. keep onlookers away from the injured person.
10. handle the victim to a minimum.
11. loosen tight clothing
12. Be as calm and as direct as possible.

What NOT to do?
1. Do not harm the victim.
2. Do not let the victim see his own injury.
3. Do not leave the victim and expect him to get help.
4. Do not assume that the victim's obvious injuries are the only ones.
5. Do not deny a victim's physical and emotional limitation.
6. Do not make unrealistic promises.
7. Do not trust the judgement of confused victim.
8. Do not require the victim to make decisions.

1. Common in suicide attempts.
2. Occasional accidental poisoning.
- a poison breathed into the lungs
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Breathing difficulty.
2. Chest pain
3. Cough, hoarseness, burning sensation in the throat.
4. Bluish discoloration of the skin.
5.Dizziness, headache.
First Aid
1. Remove the victim from the toxic environment and into fresh air immediately.
2. Monitor ABC
3. Seek medical attention.
-substance taken by mouth
Signs and Symptoms
1. Altered mental status.
2. Burns around the mouth
3. Odd breath odors
4. Nausea and Vomiting
5. Abdominal Pain
6. Diarrhea.
First Aid
1. Try to identify the poison
2. Place the victim on his or her left side.
3. Monitor ABC
3.Check for allergic reaction.
4. Save vomit, spoiled food, empty container and keep it with the victim if the he or she is taken to the emergency facility.
Absorbed Poison
- poison that entered the body through the skin
Signs and Symptoms
1. Liquid or powder on the skin
2. Burns.
3. Itching, irritation.
Redness, rash, blisters.
First Aid
1. Remove clothing.
2. Then with a dry cloth bot the poison from the skin, if dry, brush it off.
3. Food the affected area with copious amount of water.
4. Monitor the patients vital signs.
- poison that enters the body through bite, sting or syringe.
Biters and It's Signs and Symptoms
1. Insect Bite -
stinger may be present, pain, swelling, possible allergic reaction.

1. Remove the stinger bite
2. Wash wound
3. possible allergic reaction.
First Aid
2. Spider Bites/ Scorpion sting

Signs and Symptoms:
Bite mark, swelling, pain, nausea and vomiting, difficulty breathing or swallowing.

1. Wash wound
2. Apply a cold pack
3. Get medical care to receive antivenin
4. Call local emergency number, if necessary
First Aid:
3. Marine Life Stings
Signs and symptoms:
Possible marks, pain, swelling, possible allergic reaction.

1. If jellyfish- soak area in vinegar
2. If sting ray- soak in non-scalding hot water until pain goes away
3. If possible allergic reaction, assist in administration of prescribed medication
4. Clean and bandage the wound
5. Call local emergency number, if necessary
First Aid
4. Snake Bite
Signs and Symptoms:
bite marks and pain
5. Human and Animal Bite
First Aid
1. Wash wound.
2. Keep bitten part still, and lower than the heart.
3. Immobilize bitten extremity with elastic bandage to minimize venom uptake.
4. Call local emergency number.
Comparative Characteristics of Snakes
Manner of Attack
Bite Marks
Cortina, side locomotion, winding Semi-cortina, curvature
Semi-triangular Oblongated
Rectangular Circular
Rough Smooth
Vertical Round
Non- Constrictor Constrictor
With fang marks Horseshoe shape
Signs and symptoms:
Bite mark and bleeding
First Aid
1. If bleeding is minor - wash wounds
2. Control bleeding
3. Apply antibiotic
4.Cover the wound
5. Get medical attention if severe bleeding or suspected of rabies.
6. Call local emergency number or contact animal control personnel.
Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries
Common Causes:
1, Vehicular Accident.
2. Motorbike accidents.
3. Mishandling of tools and Equipment
4. Falls.
6. Sports.
Signs and Symptoms
1. Pain
2. Swelling
3. Bruising.
4. Misshapen appearance and obvious
5, Exposed bone.
6. Pale, bluish skin; loss of pulse in an injured limb.
7. Numbness furthers down the arm leg.
1. Muscle Cramp or Spasm -
is the sudden, painful tightening of a muscle.
First Aid

1. Stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp.
2. Massage the cramped muscle firmly but gently.
3. Apply moist heat.
4. Get medical help if cramp persists.
2. Muscle Strain or Pulled Muscle -
is sudden, painful tearing of muscle fiber during exertion.
Signs and Symptoms:
Pain, swelling, bruising, loss of efficient movement.
1. Apply cold compress at once.
2. elevate the limb to reduce swelling and bleeding within the muscle. Rest the pulled muscle for 24 hours.
3. Get medical help.
First Aid
3. Sprain -
is caused by torn fibers in ligament.
Signs and Symptoms:
Swelling and bruising
1. Remove clothing or jewelry from around the joint.
2. Apply cold compress at once.
3. elevate affected joint with pillow.
4. Ask a physician's recommendation of over the counter anti-inflammatory medication.
First Aid:
4. Dislocation -
displacement of the bone from its normal position at a joint
Broken Bones -
is a break or disruption of bone tissue
Signs and Symptoms:
Pain, Misshapen appearance, swelling and loss of function.
First Aid
1. Check the patient's ABC
2. Keep the victim still.
3. Prevent infection by covering with sterile dressing before immobilizing.
Splint or sling the injury in the position which you found it.
4. Prevent shock.
5. Get medical help.
Heat Cramps, Exhaustion and Sunstroke
Heat Cramps -
muscular pain due largely to loss of salt from the body in sweating or too inadequate intake of salt.

Signs and Symptoms:
Muscle cramping, often in legs or abdomen, Heavy perspiration, lightheaded, weakness.
Heat Exhaustion -
Response to heat characterized by fatigue, weakness and collapse due to inadequate intake of water to compensate for loss of fluids.

Signs and Symptoms:
Cool, pale or red moist skin, dilated pupil, headache, extreme thirst, nausea, vomiting, irrational behavior, weakness and dizziness, unconsciousness,
First Aid

1. Have the victim rest and elevate the cramping muscle.
2. keep the victim Cool. do not use alcohol rub.
3. Relieve the cramps.
4. Monitor the victim and watch signs of shock.
5. Place the victim in the safest place to protect him/her from injury.
6. give first aid for unconsciousness.
7. Get medical help.
8. Place the patient in recovery position.
Heat stroke or sunstroke
- response to heat characterized by extreme high body temperature and disturbance of sweating mechanism.
Signs and Symptoms:
Raised body temp, dry, hot, red skin. Dark urine, rapid shallow breathing, extreme confusion, weakness, seizures unconsciousness.
First Aid
1. Cool the victim.
2. Give first aid for shock.
3. If the victim starts having seizures, give first aid for seizures.
4. Keep the victim cool as you await medical help.
- is a depressed condition of many body functions due to failure of enough blood to circulate through the body .
Dangers of Shock:
1. May lead to
2. Predispose body infection.
3. Lead to loss of body parts.
1. Severe bleeding.
2. Crushing Injury.
3. Infection.
4. Heart Attack.
5. Perforation.
6. Shrapnel and bullet wound.
7. Anaphylaxis.
8. Starvation and disease may also cause shock.
Factors which Causes Shock:
P - Pain
R - Rough Handling.
I - Improper Transfer
C - Continuous Bleeding
E - Exposure to extreme cold or excessive heat.
F - Fatigue

Early Stage:
1. Face - Pale , cyanotic in color
2. Skin - Cold to touch.
3. Breathing - Irregular
4. Pulse - rapid and weak.
5. Nausea and Vomiting
6. Weakness
7. Thirsty.
Late stage:
1. Apathetic and unresponsive.
2. Sunken eyes with vacant expression/
3. Pupils dilated.
4. Low blood pressure.
5. Unconscious, may have low body temperature.
Signs and Symptoms:
Objective of First Aid
1. To improve circulation of the blood.
2. To ensure an adequate supply of oxygen.
3. To maintain normal body temperature.
Preventive Management
1. Proper body position.
2. Proper body heat
3. Proper transfer
First Aid
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