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Transcript of Italian Rationalism
Dr Mirko Guaralda
The Architectural Debate in Italy between 19th and 20th Centuries
Rationalism and its principles
The compromises of the regime
The legacy of Italian Rationalism
The Architectual debate in Italy between 19th and 20th Centuries
Italy was unified in 1860
A predominant Eclectic approach was used to build the image of the unified kingdom
The Art Noveau was experimented at the beginning of the 20th Century, but a strong classical influence is evident; strong regional connotations are also evident, as a legacy of the previous political situation
Antonio Sant’Elia (1888-1916), born in Como, was the main architect involved in the development of a Futurist architectural aesthetic.
Futurism (1909-1916) was a first attempt to propose a new aesthetic based on movement, machines, electricity and technology
We no longer feel ourselves to be the men of the cathedrals and the ancient moot halls, but men of the grand hotels, railways stations, giant roads, colossal harbours, covered markets, glittering arcades, reconstructed areas and salutary slums clearances.
(A. Sant’Elia, text for The Citta’ Nuova, 1914)
Sant’Elia’s was not able to develop any of his projects, but his work has influenced several architectures in Italy and especially in the Italian colonies
Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978)
Scuola Metafisica - Metaphysical art
Carlo Enrico Rava
Our Past and present are not incompatible. We do not wish to ignore our traditional heritage. It is the tradition which transforms itself and assumes new aspects recognisable only to few.
(Rassegna Italiana, 1926)
Libera, Terragni, Figini and Pollini were all young graduates from the newly established Faculty of Architecture in Milan, a compromise between engineering schools and beaux arts academies
1926 First Rationalist Architecture Exhibition in Milan
1931 Third Rationalist Architecture Exhibition in Rome
Giuseppe Terragni (1904-1943)
Hotel Metropole Swiss - Como (1926-27)
Novocomum – Como (1927-29)
Casa del Fascio - Como (1932-36)
Casa Rustici – Milan (1933-35)
Asilo Sant’Elia – Como (1936-37)
Danteum (Project) – Rome (1938)
War Memorial - Como (1931-32)
Giuliani Frigerio Apartments – Como (1939-40)
Couthouse – Milan (M. Piacentini, 1933)
INPS Palace (G. Muzio, 1938-52)
E42 Congress Centre (A. Libera, 1938-54)
Palazzo della Civilta’ Italiana (G. Guerrini, 1938-53)
The Compromises of the Regime
Sabaudia (gruppo 7, 1934)
Giovanni Muzio, Ca’ Brutta 1922
Italian High Court- Rome (G. Calderini, 1888-1910)
Milan Central Railway Station (U. Stacchini, 1912-31)
Florence St. Maria Novella Railway Station (G. Michelucci, 1933-35)
Italian Parliament (E. Basile, 1902-18)
Grand Hotel Campo dei Fiori – Varese (1907-12)
The Legacy of Italian Rationalism
Goldman & Salatsch Building – Vienna (A. Loos, 1910)
Maison du Peuple – Bruxelles (V. Horta, 1896-88)
Castiglioni Palace – Milan (G. Sommarua, 1900-03)