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Cures of a Millenium
Transcript of Cures of a Millenium
The smallpox vaccine worked so well that there hasn't been a case of smallpox in the United States since 1949. The United States stopped vaccinating the general population against smallpox in 1972 because the disease was no longer a threat. The world's last known case of smallpox was reported in Africa in 1977. In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that smallpox was wiped out — the first (and only) time in history that an infectious disease was declared eliminated from the planet. Smallpox is an infection caused by the variola virus. For centuries, epidemics of smallpox affected people all over the globe, and the disease was often serious. But in 1796, an English doctor named Edward Jenner discovered a way to protect people from getting smallpox, and his experiments eventually led to the development of the first smallpox vaccine. How about rinderpest? During the 20th century, there were a series of campaigns to eradicate rinderpest, a viral disease which infected cattle and other ruminants and belonged to the same family as measles, primarily through the use of a live attenuated vaccine. The final, successful campaign was led by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. On 14 October 2010, with no diagnoses for nine years, the FAO announced that the disease had been completely eradicated, making this the first disease of livestock to have been eradicated by human undertakings. not all eradication attempts worked though.... hookworm
In North American countries, such as the United States, eradication of hookworm had been attained due to scientific advances. The Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in the 1920s was supposed to focus on the eradication of hookworm infections for those living in Mexico and other rural areas. However, the campaign was politically influenced, causing it to be less successful, and underdeveloped regions such as Mexico still deal with these infections from parasitic worms. Malaria Malaria elimination has already been achieved in most of Europe, North America, Australasia, North Africa and the Caribbean, and parts of South America, Asia and Southern Africa, according to the Malaria Elimination Group. The WHO (an organization) defines elimination as having no domestic transmission for the past three years. Nine countries are in the elimination stage and eight the pre-elimination stage (<5 cases per 1000 people at risk per year). The WHO also reports in 2010 malaria killed approximately 655,000 people. That is down about 36,000 from 2009. They also define an "elimination stage" when a country is on the verge of eliminating malaria, as being <1 case per 1000 people at risk per year. According to the 2011 WHO World Malaria Report, 28 countries are certified as having eliminated malaria. Eight countries appear to be malaria free but steps still need to be taken to ensure they do not re-establish transmission. Yaws Yaws is a rarely fatal but highly disfiguring disease caused by the spiral-shaped bacterium (spirochete). they spread through skin to skin contact with infectious lesions. The global prevalence of this disease and other endemics was reduced by the Global Control of Treponematoses (TCP) programme between 1952 and 1964 from about 50 million cases to about 2.5 million (a 95% reduction). However, following the cessation of this program these diseases remained at a low prevalence in parts of Asia, Africa and the Americas with sporadic outbreaks. Yaws is currently targeted by the South-East Asian Regional Office of the WHO for elimination from the remaining endemic countries in this region (India, Indonesia and East Timor) by 2010, and so far, this appears to have met with some success, since no cases have been seen in India since 2004. Presently, scientist worldwide are working towards eradicating diseases and infection both globally and regionally. These diseases include: hookworm, malaria, lymphatic filiariasis, measles, rubella, onchocerciasis, yaws, BSE ( bovine spongiform encephalopathy) (regionally) So using drugs, science has managed to keep us healthy, by removing diseases that have been very harmful in the past. but in their attempt to make us healthier, have they weakened the new generation?
Elimination of disease: Reduction to zero of the incidence of a specified disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required. Example: neonatal tetanus.
Elimination of infections: Reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by a specific agent in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued measures to prevent re-establishment of transmission are required. Example: measles, poliomyelitis.
Eradication: Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts; intervention measures are no longer needed. Example: smallpox. Extinction: The specific infectious agent no longer exists in nature or in the laboratory. Example: none. Control: The reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required to maintain the reduction. Example: diarrhea diseases. eradication simply means:
extermination of an infectious agent so that no further cases of the related disease can occur. however, 'virtual eradication' also exists :
reduction of the frequency of occurrence of a disease to an arbitrary level which is considered to be not a threat to the population at risk And polio (poliomyethelis) and dracunculiasis ( guinea wormdisease) (globally) future implications Now that diseases like small pox have been eradicated, the forthcoming generations don't need to be vaccinated against it. However, smallpox cultures still exist in labs, so if for some reason, smallpox was to be released into the world somehow, there would be a population wipe out, due to their susceptibility towards it.