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Earth's Processes

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Heidi Walker

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Earth's Processes

Glacier Earth's Processes



Fossils were used to help support the idea that all the continents used to be one big continent, called Pangaea (rock layers along the coast of eastern South America match those along the western coast of Africa) A trace fossil is a fossil that wasn’t alive, like footprints or animal burrows. Instead of decaying, remains are trapped in mud, ice, sand and are kept together until the mud or sand becomes rock
For every fossil there are many more plants or animals that died without leaving a trace
Form mostly in sedimentary rock. Why? Used to be alive
Their remains have been preserved in rock
Can be actual bones or petrified (turned to stone) A mold is the hollow space left when the remains finally decay
A cast is what you have when other minerals fill in the mold space and harden They help scientists know how animals have changed
Supports the theory of evolution
Simpler organisms are on the lower levels which proves that animals have adapted over time They tell us what the weather used to be like
They tell us the age of the earth They tell us if a land used to be covered by water Radioactive Dating Scientists measure the amount of the radioactive elements in a fossil
They know the half life of the elements
They use math to compute the age Carbon 14 5.73 x 10^3 years Potassium 40 1.248 x 10^9 years Uranium 235 4,470,000 years Rubidium 87 48.8 x 10^9 years Uranium
238 704,000,000
years






Can have gentle slopes Magma = melted rock underground
Pressure builds under the crust
Gas pushes molten magma up and out
Lava = melted rock on the surface Shield volcanoes form from eruptions of flowing lava. The lava spreads out and builds up volcanoes with broad, gently sloping sides. The shape resembles a warrior's shield. Cinder cones build from erupting lava that breaks into small pieces as it blasts into the air. As the lava pieces fall back to the ground, they cool and harden into cinders that pile up around the volcano's vent. Cinder cones are very small cone-shaped volcanoes Stratovolcanoes build from continuous eruptions of lava and ash that pile up in layers, or strata, much like layers of cake and frosting. These volcanoes form symmetrical cones with steep sides. Mount St. Helens, WA
Top: before the eruption
Bottom: after the eruption Above: Today, note the dome that has rebuilt Volcanoes Sit alone (not in ranges) Can have steep slopes Glaciers form at high altitudes When heavy enough begin to drift downhill Scrapes and scars bedrock Removes soil and vegetation Carries rock down the mountain Begins to melt Deposits soil and rock at lower elevation When the glaciers melt, they leave the rocks and soil they picked up, forming moraines
When glaciers move, they cut gouges in the land and pick up rocks which are then carried with the glacier Weathering Erosion

Wind Removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice or gravity.
(When something picks up pieces and moves them to a new place.) Process of breaking rock into smaller pieces Wind/Abrasion Freezing and melting of trapped ice Sedimentary rock is formed by pieces of rock and sand being eroded away and then deposited in a new place, forming layers of sediment. Over time as the layers increase, they get heavier. This increses the pressure and heat, turning the sand and sediment into rock. Mudstone Conglomerate Coquina – dead animals, shells Limestone Soil Formation Soil is: Rock pieces
Sand
Dirt
Minerals
Air
Water
Decayed plants and animals Soil is:
*A valuable resource
*Easily eroded
*Takes many years to be made
*Made by weathering, erosion and deposition
*Necessary for life on earth Atmospheric Composition 78%Nitrogen 21% Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Argon Neon Helium Methane Krypton Nitrous Oxide Carbon Monoxide Xenon Ozone Nitrogen dioxide Lodine Ammonia Water vapor Deforestation Mining Drilling oil Living, breathing, moving Clearing land Farming How people affect the earth's surface Animals Chemical Weathering Mechanical Weathering Plants Release of Pressure Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Living Organisms Acid Rain Water Responsible for most chemical weathering
Dissolves rock Is an important part of chemical weathering
Water, iron, and oxygen combine in a process called oxidation
The result of oxidation is rust
Affects metals Carbon dioxide also causes chemical weathering
Dissolves in water or rain
Sinks into the air pockets in the soil
The result is an acid called carbonic acid
Carbonic acid weathers rock easily When a seed falls onto the surface of a rock and sprouts, its roots push into cracks in the rocks
As the plant's roots grow they produce an acid that slowly disolves the rock around the roots
Decay and waste products of animals and plants Factories produce chemicals that go up into the air as pollution
The chemicals dissolve into the rain, forming acid
When the rain pours on the rocks, the acid easily weathers the rock Plant roots enter the cracks in the rocks
As the roots grow they push the rock farther apart
That causes little bits to fall off of the rock Erosion takes bits off of the rock
Pressure of rock is reduced
Release of this pressure causes rock to peel Animals burrow
They loosen and break apart rocks in the soil
Animals include, moles, gophers, prarie dogs, and some insects. Water gets trapped in the rock
Water freezes inside the cracks of the rock
It expands and makes the crack bigger
This also causes and widens cracks in sidewalks and roads Sand and other rock particles that are carried by wind can wear away exposed rock surfaces Before the glacier forms, the land is covered with vegetation
Ice covers the land
The rocks are frozen inside the ice
When the glacier gets too heavy, it moves downhill, removing plants, soil and rocks Gravity A weathered rock sits on a mountain slope
Gravity is always pulling on the rock
The rock eventually rolls or slides down the slope Blows over the rocks
Takes bits of sediments off of rock
Carries or rolls rock and soil away Ice Deposition

Wind when rock particles and soil are moved from one place by erosion and then deposited somewhere else Erodes rock, carrying or rolling sediment
When the water slows or gets shallow or runs into an object, the sediment is deposited When the glacier moves rock is picked up or eroded
When the glacier melts the rocks and soil have been deposited Gravity When gravity is stronger than the rock's inertia, it is pulled downhill, or eroded
When gravity is no longer strong enough to affect the object, it is deposited in the new location Erodes bits of sediments and carries it in the air
When gravity is stronger than the force of the wind or when the wind blows the bits of sediment into an object the sediment is deposited and stays Ice Water Water flows over rocks in the stream
Bits of sediment and rock particles are picked up
They are washed away, rolling across the bottom Techtonic activity =
Movement of earth's plates
The surface of the earth floats on plates
Plate move against each other
Convergent - under continents
Divergent - under sea How does tectonic activity build land? Plates can move towards each other and collide forming mountains or hills
Plates can move in opposite directions stretching the land and even causing rifts
Plates can shift across each other with the upper plates going one direction and the lower plates going another Rio Grande Rift Continental plates are separating or spreading
Usually continental plates push against each other
Mountain ranges lie on most continental plate boundaries
The Rio Grande Rift plates are pulling the land apart at a rate of 1 inch every 40 years
Created a canyon
Monitored by 25 GPS stations Pacific plate shifts
Magma in hot spot pushes up
This makes new land
Makes a string of islands Plates under oceanic crust shift in opposite directions
Magma comes up into the crack
When hit by water immediatley starts to crust over
New land has been added to the sea floor Sea Floor Spreading Volcanoes form islands Different types of faults Earthquakes Volcanoes Volcanoes are most often on plate boundaries
The boundary is weaker, making it easier for magma to break through the crust
Volcanoes build new land Plates are hitting and grinding against each other
This causes earthquakes
Notice that most of the earthquakes are on the plate boundaries
Earthquakes change the land, by creating mountains and rifts Your New Mexico Connection Your New Mexico Connection Modern Day Examples Means/End Defining Form Function Constructing support Classifying Water Comparing Sequencing Sequencing Sequencing Sedimentary Rock Inducing Defining Rocks that are formed by bits of sediment that eventually harden over time Means/End Fossils Plant or animal evidence trapped and preserved Deducing Means/End Parameters Deducing Utility Removing plants causes soil to be lost to erosion
Driving across land erodes dirt
Drilling can cause pollution and ruin the land
Farming causes pollution, takes nutrients from soil
People use factories, cut timber, use cars
Breathing creates carbon dioxide which weathers rock
Even just walking changes earth's surface How animals affect earth's surface Building dams changes how the water flows
Animals cut down trees
Animals eat the tree bark or seeds
Eat the actual tree
Burrowing under things can cause collapse
Waste products chemically weather Utility Perspective analysis Means/End Form function Means/End Form Function Earth's Processes by Cassidy Walker San Antone Mountain Gallup lava flows Petroglyph Monument http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/rocks-minerals-landforms/weathering-and-erosion.htm http://science.discovery.com/tv-shows/greatest-discoveries/videos/100-greatest-discoveries-radiometric-dating.htm http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/photos/weathering-erosion-gallery/#/baffin-island_832_600x450.jpg 10^3 = 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000, so 5.73 x 10^3 = 5.73 x 1,000 = 5,730 years Radioactive Dating Scientists measure the amount of the radioactive elements in a fossil
They know the half life of the elements
They use math to compute the age Carbon 14 5.73 x 10^3 or 5,730 years Potassium 40 1.248 x 10^9 or 1,248,000,000 years Uranium 235 4.47 x 10^ 6 or 4,470,000 years Rubidium 87 48.8x10^9 or 48,800,000,000 years Uranium
238 7.04 x 10^8 or 704,000,000
years Parameters Deducing 10^3 = 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000, so 5.73 x 10^3 = 5.73 x 1,000 = 5,730 years
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