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Chemistry

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Leong Family

on 10 May 2010

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Transcript of Chemistry

Chemistry Revision Elements, Compounds &and Mixtures A substance that is made up of only one type of atom. It cannot be chemically split into simpler substances. A substance that contains two or more elements chemically joined together. A substance that contains two or moresubstances physically together but not reacted with one another chemically. Experimental Design and Purification Techniques ______________________ Simple distillation Fractional distillation Crystallisation Centrifuging and Decanting Separating funnel Sublimation Evaporation Filtration To separate insoluble solids from solution (either to retrieve residue or filtrate) To separate a mixture of immiscible liquids To separte a mixture of solids, of which one sublimes To separate solute from solvent (to retrieve solvent) To separate solute from solvent (to retrieve solute, heated to dryness) To separate solute from solvent (to retrieve solute, from saturated solution after heating) To separate a mixure of two miscible liquids with distinctly different boiling points To separate insolube solid from solution Chromatography To separate and identify different substances in a mixture Adsoption Solubility ability to attract to the stationary phase (paper) ability to move with the mobile phase (solvent) Rf (retention factor) =
distance traveled by chemical/solvent front ionisation energy The amount of energy needed to remove one electron from a gaseous atom Types of Bonding Metals + Non-metals
Metal atoms lose electrons to form cations and non-metals gain electrons to form anions.
Ions (cations & anions) are held together by strong electrostatic force of attraction Metal ions held together by a 'sea' of free-moving delocalised electrons.
Strong electrostatic forces between metal ions and 'sea' of electrons. Asymmetrical distribution of electrons in electron cloud. Interaction between polar molecules. Polarity is due to the electronegativity of each atom in a molecule. Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons Greater electroneativity, greater pull on the electrons. Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to oxygen or nitrogen. Such a hydrogen atom becomes attracted to the oxygen or nitrogen atom of a neighbouring molecule. Simple Covalent Bonds A coordinate bond or a dative covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the shared pair of electrons is provided by only one of the atoms. A covalent bond occurs when two atoms share electrons from their outermost shell.
One covalent bond constitutes 2 electrons. Properties Volatility Conductivity Solubility Simple molecules Giant molecules Ionic structures Metallic Structures Low bp/mp High bp/mp High bp/mp High bp/mp Non-conductor Conduct in molten/aqueous state Conduct in solid/liquid state Insoluble Insoluble Soluble only in organic non-polar solvent Soluble only in polar solvent Subshell and electronic configuration Lowest energy Highest energy 5p
4d
5s
4p
3d
4s
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s Each orbital can be filled by only 2 electrons, each with a different spin.
Electrons go into different orbitals if given a choice.
s
p
d
f 1
3
5
7 Type of subshell No. of orbitals chemical equations A
T
I
O
N
S N
I
O
N
S +1 sodium
potassium
silver
hydrogen
copper(I)
ammonium magnesium
calcium
lead(II)
zinc
copper(II)
iron(II)
manganese(II) aluminium
iron(III)
chromium +2 +3 -1 -2 -3 chloride
bromide
iodide
hydoxide
nitrite/nitrate(III)
nitrate/nitrate(V)
hydrogensulfate
hydrogencarbonate
manganate(VII)/permanganate oxide
sulphide
sulphite/sulphate(IV)
sulphate/sulphate(VI)
chromate(VI)
dichromate(VI) nitride
phosphate(V) Monoatomic gases diatomic gases triatomic gases others acids helium
neon
argon
krypton
xenon
radon hydrogen
oxygen
nitrogen
chlorine
bromine
iodine
nitrogen monoxide
carbon monoxide
hydrogen chloride sulphur dioxode
nitrogen dioxide
carbon dioxide
ozone
dinitrogen oxode sulphur trioxide
ammonia
methane
ethene hydrochloric acid
nitric acid
sulphuric acid
sulphurous acid
carbonic acid
phosphoric(V) acid
ethanoic acid y m b o l s solid (s)
liquid (l)
aqueous (aq)
gas (g) Solubility Table All nitrate salts Most chloride salts Most sulfate salts Carbonates/Hydroxides of sodium, potassium & ammonium lead(II) chloride & silver chloride lead(II) sulfate, barium sulfate & calcium sulfate Most other carbonates/hydroxides Atomic structure ionic bonding
metallic bonding covalent bonding intermolecular bonds Dative Covalent Bonds Giant Covalent Bonds Van der Waals Forces Hydrogen Bonding t
a
t
e Soluble Insoluble Diamond Graphite Properties Melting point Density Appearance Hardness Electrical conductivity 3700 degree Celsius 3300 degree Celsius 3.5 g/cm^3 2.2 g/cm^3 Colourless, transparent crystals Black, shiny powder Hardest natural substance known; used as drill tips for drilling equipment and in glass cutters. Soft. Used as a solid lubricant to reduce friction in engines, and also used as pencil lead Non-conductor Conductor
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