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Forest types of Pakistan

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by

Ashley Malik

on 18 October 2015

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Transcript of Forest types of Pakistan

Forest types of Pakistan
ALPINE REGION
TROPICAL
SUB TROPICAL
TEMPERATE REGION
Mangroves

Riverine forests
IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS
FARM FORESTS
LINEAR PLANTATIONS
IS THAT ALL?
Coastal belt/ Indus delta (fine alluvial soils)
500 000 acres (8% of total forest area)
Key species:
Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata & Ceriops tagal
Characteristics: Evergreen, leathery leaves, slow growth, branchy/bushy trees, salt tolerant
Pneumatophores
Vivipary
Habitat to: Prawns, shrimps & fish
Uses: Low quality forage, firewood and prevention of tidal erosion
Avicennia marina
Rhizophora mucronata
Ceriops tagal
Dry tropical thorn forest

Indus plain: Rakh in UI/Desert forest in LI
Exception of Sialkot, Gujrat and Jehlum
Temperature 45+ degrees/precipitation of 75-140mm per year/ sparse bushy vegetation
3.5% of total forest area, cut due to irrigated agriculture
Xerophytic vegetation (characteristics)
Dominant tree species:
Acacia nilotica (
Kikar),
Prosopis cineraria
(Jhand),
Tamarix ahylla
(Farash),
Salvadora oleoides
(Pilu),
Capparis decidua
(Karir, Karil),
Zizyphus mauritiana
(Ber)
Calligonum spp. and haloxylon spp. in salty areas
Sub Tropical scrub/ Broad-Leaved Forests
Foothills of Murree, Himalayas, Salt Range, Margala Hills, Kalachitta & Sulaiman Ranges
Trees:
Olea cuspidata
(Kau) and
Acacia modesta
(Phulai)
Shrub:
Dodonaea
(Sanatta)
Evergreen, broad leaved sp. low & branchy
1,191,000 ha est.area/ 28% of total area
Small timber/Grazing management
Coniferous Pine Forests
Elevation range: 900-1700m
Murree hills/AJK/Kahuta/Western Himalayas/KPK
South-west summer monsoon range
Pinus roxburghii
(Chir)
Quercus incana
(Oak)
Variety of shrub undergrowth
Watershed/ Pole wood

ICE AGE?!
Coniferous Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests
Elevation 1373-3050m, tall & dense veg.
Precipitation: 630-1500mm/yr
Summer/Winter/Monsoon
Evergreen coniferous with mixed deciduous
AJK/Murree/Abbottabad/Mansehra/Swat/Hazara/Malakand
LZ:
Cedrus deodara
(Deodar, diar),
Pinus wallichiana
(Blue pine/kail),
Picea smithiana
(spruce),
Abies pindrow
(Partal/fir)
UZ:
Abies pindrow
and
Q. semecarpifolia
Deciduous:
Quercus incana
(rin, rinj),
Q.dilatata
and
Q.semecarpifolia, Aesculus hippocastanum
(Horse chestnut)
Most important watershed of Mangla and Tarbela
Soil/water conservation
Objective: High quality over sized timber @ sustained yield
Abies pindrow
P. wallichiana
Cedrus deodara
Picea smithiana
Q. dilatata
Q. semecarpifolia
Q. incana
Coniferous Dry Temperate Forests
Dry inner mountain ranges at elevation of 1525-3350m
North-West: Chitral/Neelam/Kaghan valleys and Takht e Suleiman/Shinghar/Ziarat
Cedrus deodara
(Deodar),
Pinus gerardiana
(Chilghoza pine),
Juniperus macropoda/excelsus
(Pencil juniper/Obeshta),
Pinus wallichiana, Picea smithiana
,
Quercus ilex
(Holm oak)
Ephedra
as ground vegetation
Living fossils/ Pure stands/ Slow growth
Objective: Timber and regeneration
Soil/water conservation
P. gerardiana
Juniperus macropoda
Q. ilex
Ephedra przewalskii
Coniferous Sub Alpine Forests
Alpine Scrubs
Alpine Pastures
Starting from 3350m till timber line
Himalayas: AJK/Dir/Swat/Chitral/Hazara
Dominant:
Abies spindrow/Pinus wallichiana
Others: Dwarf juniper,
Abies spectabilis
(EH Fir)and
Betula utilis
(H Birch)
Under canopy: Viburnum (Guch), Salix (Willow, Bed), and Pyrus (Pear)
Shrub formations
1-2m high
150m above sub-alpine
Salix
,
Lonicera
(Phut),
Berberis
(Sumbul, Sumblue)
Rhododendron/
Ephedra
(Asmania)
4000m elevation
Herbaceous, perennial veg.
Gilgit, Diamir, Skardu, Chitral
Full transcript