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Transcript of Russia
The Drive to Industrialize
Russia entered the industrial revolution under Alexander III and Nicholas II.
Conditions in Russia
Emancipation and Stirrings of the Revolution
Turning Point: Crisis and Revolution
Nicholas II focused on economic development.
• Railroads between iron and coal mines and factories
• Foreign capital to invest in industry
• Trans-Siberian Railroad to link European Russia to Pacific Ocean
Russia had a large empire that included ports on the Baltic and Black Seas
Their empire expanded into the Caucasus Mountains, as well as Eastern Asia
There were many resources which allowed Russia to trade frequently
- a giant country with a large influence
Other Europeans disliked Russia's autocratic government
Military disaster caused people to revolt. Workers went on strike. Liberals wanted a Constitution and a new government. Peaceful protestors marched through St. Petersburg to the tsar's Winter Palace chanting prayers, holding signs, and urging their petition for freedom. They were met by open fire by the tsar's soldiers, after he fled the palace. This day became known as "Bloody Sunday". This marked the day that the people lost their faith and trust in the tsar.
Government officials and business leaders liked economic growth, while nobles and peasants didn't.
Same problems found in Russia after urbanization as in the rest of Europe:
• Long hours and low pay
• Dangerous conditions
• Poverty, disease, discontent
Many radical socialists and communists tried to convince factory workers to rebel.
Revolution of 1905
Nobles held a lot of power and rejected change
Most Russians were serfs and were forced to work with little payment
Russia's structure was backward because those who worked the hardest, the serfs, received the least compensation
Landowning nobles aren't motivated to improve agriculture methods because the serfs do all the work
For a long time tsars ruled with absolute power above all others
At times tsars would make attempts at liberal reforms, but this was limited by the nobility because the tsars were afraid of losing their support
Many of the liberal reforms that heavily affected the rest of Europe didn't take root in Russia
The Tsar changed from reforming to repressing
Due to this, in 1881, Alexander II was assassinated.
Alexander III revived the harsh methods of Nicholas I in response to his father's assassination.
He increased the power of the secret police, restored a strict censorship, and exiled critics to Siberia.
He launched a program of Russification aimed at suppressing the cultures of non-Russian people.
He insisted on one language, Russian, and one church, the Russian Orthodox Church.
Because Russia had territory in Poland and expanded into Ukraine, they had a large Jewish population.
Official persecution encouraged pogroms, which were violent mob attacks on Jewish People.
Many became refugees, and a lot went to the United States.
Bloody Sunday sparked a huge rise in discontent across Russia, where there were many strikes and peasant revolts, demanding land. Assassins terrorized officials, and workers took over cities. Finally, Nicholas II created the October Manifesto, granting the Russian people "freedom of person, conscience speech, assembly, and union". He also assembled the Duma, a new national legislature.
The October Manifesto won over the moderates, isolating the socialists. This was helpful to the tsar who wasn't going to let anyone take away his power. As soon as the Duma met, the tsar disbanded it and appointed Peter Stolypin as his new prime minister. His election increased arrests, pogroms, and executions, causing him to realize that reform was necessary. He made land reforms, strengthened zemstvos, and improved education. This wasn't enough for the people and Stolypin was killed. The Duma wasn't able to do much and Russia remained a restless autocracy.
Results of the Revolution
"Bloody Sunday Massacre in Russia." History. A&E
Television Networks. Web. 8 Apr 2014. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/bloody-sunday-massacre-in-russia>.
"Nicholas II." 2014. The Biography.com website. Apr 09
Prominent Russians: Alexander II Liberator. Russiapedia,
n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. <http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/the-romanov-dynasty/
"Pyotr Stolypin." Russiapedia. TV Novosti. Web. 9 April
Wikipedia contributors. "Duma." Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 Apr. 2014. Web. 9 Apr. 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duma
During the Crimean War, Alexander II came to the throne.
The war was a result of Russia trying to seize the Ottoman lands and Danube River.
The war showed Russia's 'backwardness.' They only had a few miles of railroad, and the military bureaucracy inefficient.
Change was demanded, and Alexander II was forced to agree to reforms.
He enforced emancipation, or freeing of the serfs.
Freedom came with problems, such as serfs not having enough to buy the land they had worked, and that the land they were given was too small to farm efficiently.
Pyotr (Peter) Stolypin served as both the Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior. His family had been in the Russian Aristocracy for quite awhile. At times he could be very harsh, not willing to compromise, however he was also understanding of many reforms. Russian Citizens used "Stolypin's tie" to refer to nooses, and "Stolypin's wagon" which carried prisoners to labor camps.
He did create limited reforms such as freedom of religion and limited capitalism in some areas of Russia. When liberals opposed him in the Duma, he dissolved it.
Alexander III believed that the Western ideas that had entered Russia after Alexander II's reforms must be removed, in order for Russia to retain it's national identity. To achieve this, he enforced 'Russification.'
While he liberated and modernized Russia greatly, when authority was challenged, became oppressive. He was killed by the "People's Will" group, who terrorized in order to attain reform. Despite his many reforms, including the freeing of serfs, new education programs, and less censorship, he still was unable to please Russians.
Nicholas II grew up in a wealthy family and received many years of military training. He claimed that he never wanted to be the tsar but he took the throne when his father died from kidney disease. To improve the economy, industry was spread east. This made Japan feel threatened, and they attacked Russia and won. Nicholas II also acted as commander-in-chief during World War I. Russia suffered many military defeats and many people blamed Nicholas.
Dumas were created in May of 1906 by Nicholas II. He made them to please his people and give them some power in the government. This was somewhat of a trick because since its creation it hasn't had any power. Nicholas put in place the Fundamental Law saying the Duma doesn't have control over his prime ministers. Not only that, but the tsar can decide to have a new election for the Duma whenever he wants. So the tsar controlled what the Duma could do and who was in the Duma.
Alexander II also set up a system of local government. Assemblies called zemstvos were elected, and made responsible for matters such as road repair, school and agriculture.
Legal reforms based on ideas like trial by jury were also introduced, and censorship was eased.
These changes still did not please many Russians. Radicals had adopted socialist ideas from the West, and demanded more revolutionary changes.
Freeing the Serfs
Introducing Other Reforms
Persecution and Pogroms