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Semantics

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Sabrina van Tilborgh

on 21 May 2014

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Transcript of Semantics

Lexical relations
Synonymy vs Antonymy

Hyponymy & Prototypes

Homophones & Homonyms

Polysemy ; Metonymy

Word Play
Meanings
Conceptual vs Associative
Semantic features
Short exercise
Semantic roles
Agent & Theme/Patient
Instrument & Experiencer
Location & Source & Goal

Homophones & Homonyms
Collocation
http://www.cl2011.org.uk/
Synonymy vs Antonymy
Word Play
Fun with words!
Semantics
En2a - Ellen Robben
Sabrina van Tilborgh

"Basic, essential components of meaning that are conveyed by the literal use of a word."
He was drawing
with

a crayon
.

The boy
feels sad.

Did
you
hear that noise?
Polysemy ; Metonymy
Hyponymy & Prototypes
Prototypes
Superordinate terms
Co-hyponyms
Hyponymy
"The idea of the characteristic instance of a category is known as the prototype."
Idea of sameness
Not always interchangeable
Formal versus informal
Gradable fast/slow happy/sad hot/cold
Non-gradable dead/alive male/female
Reversives pack/unpack enter/exit
Synonymy
Antonymy
Homophones
Homonyms
Words that are spelt differently but pronounced the same.
Words that are spelt and pronounced the same,
but have two or more unrelated meanings.
Homonym or polysemy?
Date?
boiling a kettle
answering the door
giving someone a hand

Bottle/water
He drank an entire bottle!
Downing Street/PM
Downing Street protested against..
Polysemy
Metonymy
"Different people might have different associations or connotations attached to words."
"Sentences don't only need to be syntactically good, but also semantically."
Conceptual meaning?
Associative meaning?
The owl perched
on the roof
.

She borrowed
from George
.

The cat went
back to Fred
.
The boy
kicked
the ball
.

A car
ran over
the ball
.

The dog
chased
the boy
.
N400 and P600 (EEG)
The hamburger ate the boy.
The table listens to the radio.
NP
V
NP
NP
V
NP
"With her new golfclub, Anne Marshall whacked the ball from the woods to the grassy area near the hole and she suddenly felt invincible."
The ball was kicked by the boy.
She squashed the bug with the magazine.
The man cut himself shaving.
Slightly less shorter exercise
Semantic Roles
Meaning and Roles
We loaded the van with furniture.
We loaded the furniture into the van.
They sprayed paint onto the wall.
They sprayed the wall with paint.
right/write
to/too/two
bank (of a river) - bank (financial institution)
pupil (at school) - pupil (in the eye)
I/eye
Different specific activities in the brain
semantically deviant (weird)
grammatically incorrect
He eats his chips with his shoes. N400
He eated his chips with his hands. P600
Full transcript