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4.03 Ecosystems

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Bradley Short

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of 4.03 Ecosystems

4.03 Ecosystems
Purpose
The whales carrying capacities will increase, as the seals are driven from their habitat. The seals will be easier to devour now that they have less habitat, and without seals around the whale population will die off, too.
3) Predict how a reduction in habitat could change the capture efficiency of the killer whales. How would this affect the carrying capacities for both the whales and the seals?
1)
If the starting population of the prey is higher than the predators, the resulting population of the seals will be
higher
than the population of the whales.
Hypothesis
Data and Observations
Prey Initial Size: The starting number of prey.
Varia
bles

1) Using Table 1, which of the three trials produced the highest population for both the whales and the seals? Why do you think this trial had the best outcome for the whale and seal populations?
The purpose of this lab is to:
-Analyze graphs to determine the population size of two marine species.
-Explain how predation, birth, and death rates impact marine populations.
-Describe how biotic and abiotic factors influence marine populations.
Prey Growth Rate: The birth rate of the prey. The larger the growth rate, the faster the prey population will increase.
Predator Initial Size: The starting number of predators.
Predator Death Rate: The death rate of the predators. A larger death rate means predators will die out quicker.
Capture Efficiency: This number represents the ability of the predator to capture the prey over some time interval. A larger value for this parameter means that the predators have a better chance of capturing prey.
Materials

1) The Population Dynamics Virtual Lab Activity

2)Population Dynamics Lab Report
2)
If the starting population of the predators is higher than the prey, the resulting population of the whales will be
higher
than the population of the seals.
3)
If the prey growth rate increases, the resulting population of the seals will be
higher
than the population of the whales. (Both starting populations set to 25.)

4)
If the death rate of the whales increases, the resulting population of the seals will be
higher
than the population of the whales. (Both starting populations set to 25.)
The increased seal population had the greatest gain for both the whale and seal populations, as whales had seals to feed off of and seals in turn had time to reproduce.
2) Using Table 2 and 3, explain how the birth rates of the seals and the death rates of the whales affected the population for both whales and seals.
The relationship between the whales and the seals is very little more than a seesaw. When the whale population dwindles, the seals are able to reproduce in large numbers; and when the seal population increases, the whales have an aquatic buffet, ensuring that they do not run out of food and starve to death.
4) If another source of prey were available to the whales, what changes in population size would you expect for the seals and the whales?
With a new food source, both the seals and whales would prosper. Whales would not need to focus on consuming only seals, so while the whales get twice the food, the seals do not suffer as-heavy casualties.
5) Does the seal and killer whale relationship represent a sigmoid or peak phenomenon?
The seal and killer whale relationship represents a sigmoid pattern, due to both species having a carrying capacity that they cant return to once hitting max point. It is because of this that the populations will suffer and start to drop.
6) What are the limitations of the population dynamics lab? Is the lab activity a realistic representation of an arctic marine ecosystem?
This lab is limited to the relationship between the killer whales and the seals, and as such cannot be a lab that represents the relationship between any and all species that rival one another.
Full transcript