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# Engaging Students With Text - Newton's First Law

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## Ashley Szar

on 26 May 2013

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#### Transcript of Engaging Students With Text - Newton's First Law

Enduring Understandings Laws help predict and describe motion.

The motion of an object is affected by external forces on it. Common Core State Standards CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.3: Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.5: Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.2: Determine the central idea from a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. Newton's First Law Inertia PowerPoint Presentation: Inertia - Newton's First Law Learning Outcome: Language of the Discipline (Science)

Learning Objectives
- Students will be able to recall key vocabulary terms associated with Newton's first law of motion (factual knowledge).
- Students will be able to explain Newton's first law of motion (conceptual knowledge) using key terms.

Assessment: End-of-Unit Test
- Students will demonstrate their ability to recall key vocabulary terms associated with Newton's first law through completion of a fill-in-the blank section on the end-of-unit test.
- Students will demonstrate their ability to explain Newton's first law of motion in a short answer/essay section on the end-of-unit test.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.2: Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
CCSS Alignment: The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of historical explanations of motion, an introduction to Newton's first law of motion, net force, the equilibrium rule, and support force. The PowerPoint presentation explains the concept of inertia and the meaning of key terms as used in physics.

Text Selection Rationale: The text was chosen because it provides an overview of the Newton's first law of motion, introduces and explains key terms, and incorporates images and diagrams to demonstrate forces and inertia in a PowerPoint presentation.

Literacy Strategy & Rationale: Graphic Organizer Walk-Through
"Teachers can help students build conceptual knowledge of content area terms by teaching and reinforcing the concept words in relation to other concept words" (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011, p. 243). Graphic organizers depict concept relationships in a text. Graphic organizers are useful tools for struggling students (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011).
The graphic organizer walk-through to creates a visual summary of words discussed in the Newton's first law PowerPoint. The graphic organizer walk-through can be displayed on the board so students can see it while simultaneously viewing the PowerPoint presentation. In this way, students can easily visualize the text's central idea, Newton's first law of motion, and the relationship of key terms.

Learning Theory: Cognitive Theory
People are selective about what they learn (Ormrod, 2011). The graphic organizer walk-through highlights the most important concepts for students to learn. Activity: A Body in Motion Learning Outcome: Argument (University, n.d.)
- The inertia activity enables students to engage in a Toulmin Model argument.
- Claim: Newton's first law explains the motion of the tennis ball
- Data/Grounds: Observation of the ball's continued forward motion after being dropped
- Warrant: No force is acting on the ball after it is released
- Qualifier: Inertia is more easily visualized/understood in a frictionless environment
- Rebuttal: Refute the claim that the ball's movement is the result of a force. Rather, the ball's falling and stopping are the result of forces - gravity and friction.

Learning Objectives
- Students will be able to implement Newton's first law of motion (conceptual knowledge).

Assessment
- Students will demonstrate their ability to implement Newton's first law of motion through carrying out and analyzing the results of an experiment.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.3
Follow precisely a complex, multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.

CCSS Alignment
The body in motion activity requires students to follow a complex, multistep procedure.

Text Selection Rationale
The body in motion activity is a simple activity that allows students to gain first-hand experience with the effects of inertia. All students can engage in the activity. Students with physical handicaps can be participate by observing or recording lab data. This simple text can be classified as easy in terms of difficulty.

Literacy Strategy & Rationale: Series-of-Events Chain
- "Students can be shown how to construct maps and other types of visual displays to reflect the text patterns authors use to organize ideas" (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011).
- Series-of-Events Chain to graphically depict the steps of the activity (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011)
- Internal Text Structure: Sequence

Learning Theory: Sociocultural Theory & Cognitive Theory
- Students engage in a task that is within their ZPD with assistance from their peers.
- The use of cognitive tools (Series-of-Events Chain graphic organizer) scaffolds the learner and makes the task easier (Ormrod, 2011). Inertia Video Learning Outcome: Integration of visual information

Learning Objective: Students will be able to explain Newton's first law of motion (conceptual knowledge).

Assessment: Students will also demonstrate their ability to explain Newton's first law of motion through the analysis of a video depicting Newton's first law, using key terms.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.5: Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, inertia).

CCSS Alignment
Students are asked to predict the motion of objects, view the video and explain the observed motion, identifying where their predictions were correct or incorrect, drawing on their previously acquired knowledge of motion and forces and using key terms.

Text Selection Rationale
The video provides a real-life example of Newton's first law of motion. An oral explanation of Newton's first law accompanies the visual demonstration, thereby varying the forms of input. The video provides an opportunity for students to observe and explain Newton's first law of motion in a real-life situation.

Literacy Strategy & Rationale
Students will predict the motion of objects based upon their knowledge of forces and Newton's first law. DR-TA enables the teacher to stimulate students' thinking through the use of open-ended questions (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2011).

Learning Theory
- Sociocultural Theory: Teacher scaffolds students' explanation of Newton's first law of motion and promotes critical thinking through the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA).
- Social Cognitive Theory: Students evaluate their own learning through analyzing the accuracy of their explanations of the forces and motion in video. Ashley Szar
May 26, 2013
EDUC 505: Dr. Brooke Howland
Rossier School of Education
University of Southern California Engaging Students with Texts Inertia Video 1. Explain the content of the video and have students make predictions about what forces and motion they will observe.
2. Play video without sound. Have students describe the motion and forces observed in the video.
3. Play with sound and ask students to assess if their predictions were correct. Learning Objectives & Assessments Learning Objectives:
1. Students will be able to explain Newton's first law of motion (conceptual knowledge).
2. Students will be able to recall key vocabulary terms associated with Newton's first law of motion (factual knowledge).
3. Students will be able to apply Newton's first law of motion (procedural knowledge).
4. Students will be able to implement Newton's first law of motion (conceptual knowledge).

Assessments:
1. Students will demonstrate their ability to explain Newton's first law of motion in a short answer/essay section on the end-of-unit test.
2. Students will demonstrate their ability to recall key vocabulary terms associated with Newton's first law through completion of a fill-in-the blank section on the end-of-unit test.
3. Student's will demonstrate their ability to apply Newton's first law of motion through completion of a short answer/essay section on the end-of-unit test.
4. Students will demonstrate their ability to implement Newton's first law of motion through carrying out and analyzing the results of an experiment (Body in Motion).
5. Students will also demonstrate their ability to explain Newton's first law of motion through the analysis of a video depicting Newton's first law. 1. Place a target about 10-15 meters away from a starting line. Mark the starting line with chalk or tape.
2. Hold the tennis ball and do not let your elbow leave your side as you run and drop the ball. Do not throw the ball. You should hold the ball from its sides so that you can release your grip as you let it drop. Remember to drop the ball and not throw it, otherwise you will change the intent of the experiment.
3. Have three students stand alongside (but slightly back from) the running path to act as observers. One should stand before the target, one at the target, and one just after the target. Their objective is to determine exactly where the runner released the ball and where the ball strikes the ground.
4. Ask the runner to sprint toward the target as fast as she or he can and try to drop the ball so that it lands on the target.
5. Next, have the observers make a diagram in their lab notebook of where the ball was released and where it landed. Repeat the experiment until the ball hits the target.
6. Use the information in Step 5 to predict what would happen if a student ran at a slower speed.
7. Repeat Steps 4-5, using a different runner sprinting at a slower speed.
8. Use the information in the previous trials to predict what would happen at a walking speed.
9. For the last trial, ask a student to walk toward the target. Repeat Steps 4-5.
10. Write a summary of your results in your lab notebook. Form conclusions based on the speed of each runner, the location of each ball’s release, and the exact point where each ball landed. Procedure In this experiment you will try to drop a tennis ball on a target as you run past the target. Think it’s easy? Before you begin, try to guess what will happen. Try to figure out when you will need to release the ball in order to hit the target. Write down your predictions. Give the reasons why you think you are correct.
As you conduct this experiment, think of the challenges Air Force pilots had before the invention of the guided missiles that are used today. Pilots in World War II had to understand mathematics in order to drop bombs on targets while causing as little harm as possible to surrounding buildings and people. These are the same concepts that you will learn with this experiment.

Materials

You will need the following items for this experiment:
• One tennis ball
• Clearly marked target(s), i.e., notebook paper, a chalk mark, or tape Activity: Inertia – A Body in Motion References Graphic Organizer Walk-Through 1. Mark a start line with masking tape

2. Mark a target 10-15 meters away with masking tape

4. Run to the target

5. Try to drop the ball so it lands on the target

6. Draw a diagram of where the ball was released and where it landed

7. Sprint to the target, repeat steps 5 & 6

8. Sprint at a slower speed, repeat steps 5 & 6

9. Predict what will happen if walking

10. Walk, repeat steps 5 & 6 Series-of-Events Chain: Body in Motion Directed Reading-Thinking Activity 9th & 10th Grade Physics (Body, n.d.) Body in Motion Lab. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&ved=0CGcQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsitemaker.umich.edu%2Fmclaughlin_portfolio%2Ffiles%2Finertia_activity.doc&ei=zHCiUdyJCceDhQfxiIHgDg&usg=AFQjCNFYRTDMeBYY1vOGeZIWZUaaXrOI5w&sig2=C-0oiS6TTIShjjXmgR5yKQ&bvm=bv.47008514,d.ZG4