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World War II

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Shawnn Row

on 19 March 2014

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Transcript of World War II

W o r l d W a r II
German and U.S. Propaganda
Definition of Propaganda
a form of communication that is aimed towards influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes.
Types of media used
Newspapers, radios, posters, symbols
Nazi Propaganda
- Hitler used it to promote German Nationalism
- He used it after the war started to criticize Britain, France, Russia
- Promoted the Aryan race and the denunciation of Jews
American Propaganda
- The American government used it to promote the war effort
- Anti Nazi and anti Japan propaganda was common
- Like WWI, FDR used it to promote war gardens
- Others promoted rationing, women's work, and war bonds
To 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945
Axis Powers Take Action
Italy and Mussolini invade Ethiopia in E. Africa
Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles
- Moves into the Rhineland
- Marches into Austria
- Takes over Czechoslovakia
France and Britain follow appeasement giving into one's demand to keep peace
To Ethiopia
Response to this????
- Signs treaty with Poland in case Germany invades there
Hitler signs secret pact with Josef Stalin
- Russia and Germany can split Poland
WWII Begins in Europe!!!!!!
- With alliances set up, Hitler invades Poland in
September 1939
- France and Britain declare war on Germany
- Germany and Soviet Union easily defeat Poland
- Now Hitler can focus on war in west (France)
The Allies (Br. & FRA) station troops along the Maginot Line in western France across from Germany
- Germans cross line May 1940
- Use new warfare called
Blitzkrieg (lightning warfare)
- Quickly defeats France in
two months
Maginot Line
British Army narrowly escapes back to England
- Battle of Britain - Germany bombs
English cities to weaken infrastructure
- Hitler calls off planned invasion of
Britain in 1941
British escape
June 1941, Germany betrays Soviet Union and closes in on Moscow
- A cold, rough winter stopped the German Army from advancing
Japan Takes Action in Asia
- Japan hit hard by Great Depression
- Lacked area for natural resources
- Invades Manchuria 1931 and later
a large part of China in 1937
- Sings peace treaty with
Soviet Union in 1941;
can focus on conquest
- French defeat in Europe
allows Japan to invade
Hindsight is 20/20. But let's put ourselves in Britain and France's shoes during the 1930's. Considering the devastation of WWI and the lasting impression in people's minds, do you believe that the Allies were right in following the appeasement policy, letting Germany invade German speaking lands? Explain your answer and don't be bias with what we know now.
Let's Write!
United States' Response to WWII
Majority of nation favored isolationism and neutrality
- Let Europe fight their own wars, not our problem
- Neutrality Acts passed => no sales on military supplies
without cash payments
FDR was worried about the war and knew we would be in it at some point
- Reelected in 1940; allowed him to be more proactive
- Gives Britain old destroyer ships
- Calls for first peace time draft => 21-36 year old males
- Land Lease Act passed March 1941 => gave military aid
to any country whose defense was in
our best national security
United States' Response
When Japan entered Indochina
=> U.S. stopped trade and froze Japanese assets
- FDR says leave conquered land and trade would resume
- Japan General - Hideki Tojo wanted to rid American
fleet so they could conquer the Pacific
- On December 7, 1941 a 180 Japanese planes bombed
Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
Results of Pearl Harbor
- Most of U.S. Pacific fleet was in a 3 sq. mile area
- 2,400 Americans killed; 1,200 wounded
300 war planes damaged; 18 warships sunk
- Luckily, our three aircraft carriers were out at sea
*most important weapon in the Pacific
- Japan only lost 29 planes

- "A date which will live in infamy" - FDR
- Three days later the U.S. officially joined WWII
- The attack put the U.S. six months behind schedule
Now we have:
Axis Powers vs. The Allies
- Germany
- Italy
- Japan
- United States
- Britain
- France
- Soviet Union
WWII in North Africa and Italy
- Battle of the Atlantic
- The ongoing battle between U.S.
convoys and German submarines
- Happened all over the Atlantic
- U.S. arrives in NW Africa (Morocco and Algeria)
under Dwight Eisenhower in November 1941

- British Forces defeat German army in Egypt
in the same month
- Allied forces surround Nazi forces in Tunisia
- U.S. first encounter with German Army
- Despite Hitler's instructions to fight to the death,
240,000 Germans and Italians surrender
WWII in Italy
July 1943, American troops under
George Patton invade Sicily
- Island fell in just 38 days
- Mussolini overthrown; new government set up
Allies invade Italy next
- As Allied forces threaten Rome, the new Italian
government surrenders
- German troops in Italy continue a long, bloody war
- Finally broke through German defense in May 1944
- Recaptured rest of Italy in 1945 costing
190,000 casualties for the U.S.
WWII in the Soviet Union
Soviets quickly retreated to Stalingrad when
Germany invaded them by surprise in 1941
- Scorched earth policy => burned anything valuable when
retreating; devastated Russian land
Battle of Stalingrad - September 1942 to January 1943
- German surrounded the industrial city and bombed it
- Soviets take advantage of harsh Russian winter and
counter attack a freezing Nazi Army
- 90,000 surviving Germans surrendered
- Soviets begin to retake their territory and
push towards Berlin
- Turning point of WWII on the Eastern Front
WWII in Western Europe
War in the Air - WWII saw a massive aerial effort
- Royal Air Force (RAF) - Britain's air force protected
England from German bombings
- Luftwaffe - Germany's air force bombed major cities
before attacking them
- Japanese air force attacked Pearl Harbor and Pacific Islands
- U.S. Navy and Air Force conducted raids on Germany and
Japan and later dropped the Atomic Bomb
=> Main objective: destroy enemy industries
D-Day - June 6, 1944
- Allied troops gather in Southern England
- German forces strengthen French coastlines
- RAF bombed the German defense in Normandy
- 23,000 airborne soldiers parachuted behind enemy lines
the night before the invasion
- Finally, 4,600 Allied invasion boats crossed the English
Channel at Normandy
- Allies suffered heavy casualties but landed half million
soldiers to start the assault on Germany
- Allied troops advanced quickly over France,
liberating Paris in August of 1944
- Nazis forces fought desperately as Allies moved
across the German border
Battle of the Bulge - December 1944 to January 1945
- Germany's last counter attack to stop Allies
- Germans overwhelmed American forces and isolated them
- General Patton's 250,000 reinforcement troops help stop
the German advance
- Allies prevail and left 100,000 German casualties
- Biggest battle on the Western Front
- After this, most Nazi leaders recognize defeat
V-E Day - Victory in Europe! May 8, 1945
Yalta Conference - Big Three meet in Russia to
discuss end of war plans
- Russia would enter war against Japan
- Germany would be divided into four occupational zones
by the Allies
- Eastern Europe would be allowed to have free elections
FDR dies April 12, 1945 before Germany or Japan surrendered
- Died of overwork from the war, possibly causing a stroke
- VP Harry Truman took over
- Soviet forces take Berlin in late April and meet the
allies on April 25 at the Elbe River
- Hitler fulfilled his vow:

He committed suicide on May 1, 1945

- May 8, 1945 Germany officially surrendered
" I shall stand or fall in this struggle. I shall never survive the defeat of my people."
WWII in the Pacific
Japan continued its conquest of the Pacific as the U.S. prepared for war after Pearl Harbor
Japan's strategy for victory included:
- Fighting to the death (often suicidal)
- Kamikazes - suicidal pilots who crashed their planes of
explosives into U.S. ships
U.S. strategy for victory included:
- Island Hopping - jumping from island to island to set up
new bases
- Eventually get close enough to Japan to invade it
- Used navy ships and planes to bomb islands before
Battle for the
- 1942 American and Filipino forces hold out
- Finally surrender on May 6, 1942
- 76,000 U.S. and Filipinos become POWs and forced to
march 60 miles to prison camps
- Many died on this march or were executed upon arrival
- Became known as the Bataan Death March
May 1942
- First naval battle fought
entirely in the air
- Both sides lost half their
aircraft and more importantly
their aircraft carriers
- It was a draw but prevented
Japan from invading Australia
- Midway protected Hawaii and was a vital Japanese target
- Another entirely aerial battle
- Saw four Japanese aircraft carriers destroyed
- Japan would be on the defensive the rest of the war
June 1942
Battle of Guadalcanal August to November 1942
- Marines get their first taste of jungle warfare
- Snipers and booby traps kill many marines
- Eventually win the Island but with high casualties
The Battle of Iwo Jima
November 1944 to February 1945
- America bombs island for 74 days
- 120,000 Marines vs. 25,000 Japanese
- The sand, rocks, and jungle made for a tough fighting surface
- Only 216 Japanese take prisoner (lots of suicides)
- Famous picture of Marines raising the flag
The Battle of Okinawa
April to June 1945
- Last obstacle in the way before Allies could invade Japan
- Only 7,200 of 100,000 Japanese surrendered
- Allies suffer 50,000 casualties => heaviest in the Pacific
The Manhattan Project
- 1939 Jewish scientist Albert Einstein, who left Nazi
Germany, told FDR an atom bomb was possible
- FDR creates top secret Manhattan Project
- Wanted to build it before Hitler could
- Enrico Fermi was lead scientist on the project
- Tested one in New Mexico July 16, 1945
**shattered windows 125 miles away**
Now the question arose: Do we drop the bomb?
- U.S. could use regular bombs on Japan before invading (high casualty rate)
- Could create a naval blockade that could take months (time)
- Use it and inflect heavy loss on civilians (save American lives)
In the end, President Truman tells Japan to:
"Accept unconditional surrender or face utter destruction."
- August 6, 1945 the first atomic bomb dropped on
Hiroshima, Japan
=> 100,000 died quickly, other suffered/died from
burns and radiation
- August 9, 1945 the second bomb dropped on Nagasaki
=> 75,000 died and others from burns and radiation
- August 10, 1945 Japan surrendered
Battle of Peleliu
The Holocaust
Anti-Semitism - hostility towards Jews
- Was a common thought in Europe from about 1880
When Hitler and the Nazis came to power in 1933, this was one of their main beliefs
In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws were passed
- stripped Jews of their German citizenship
- forbid marriage between Jews and non-Jews
- Jews could only practice business with one another
(doctors, accountants, etc.)
- Had to carry marked identification cards and later the
Star of David armbands
- All Jews received the middle name of Sarah or Israel
- The SA, SS, and Gestapo were all small enforcement
units used to carry out these new laws and prosecute
other opponents of the Nazi Regime
- Concentration camps sprouted up for prisoners of wars
and common "undesirables"
- Jews, homeless, homosexuals, Slavs,
the physically and mentally disabled,
Communists, Gypsies (Roma), Poles,
Jehovah's Witnesses, Political Enemies
Random and organized attacks on Jews became a common occurrence throughout Germany
- Kristallnacht "the night of broken glass" highlighted
these events in 1938 as hundreds of Jewish businesses
and homes were destroyed and books burned
Ghettos of Jews sprouted as Hitler moved across Europe
- Fenced off areas of cities with strict laws
**350,000 Jews lived in 3 sq miles in Warsaw, Poland**
Firing squads also eliminated many Jews in "war zones"
But Hitler needed a more efficient way to deal with Jews in conquered areas
- His "Final Solution" was the plan to mass murder
millions of Jews in his empire
- Built death camps in rural areas in Germany and Poland
Life and Death in concentration camps
- Jews were gathered and packed into trains
- Stripped, shaved, and tattooed when arrived at camps
- Often told to go to the shower where Zyklon B gas was
- Others performed work and suffered from beatings
and starvation
- Dead bodies were burnt, leaving a staunch odor in the air
- Auschwitz - murdered 1.5 million people
Allied Response
- Many people did not believe the rumors of these rural
death camps
- Most countries did not ease their immigration laws to
make way for fleeing Jews
1945, Nazi guards fled concentration camps as Allied soldiers got their first glimpse
" The odor was so bad I backed up, but I looked at a bottom bunk bed, there I saw one man. He was to weak to get up; he could just barely turn his head...He looked like a skeleton; and his eyes were deep set. He didn't utter a sound; he just looked at me with those eyes, and they still haunt me today."
- Leon Bass, American Soldier
- Survivors were skin and bone and could barely talk
Nuremberg Trials - November 1945
- 24 leading Nazis on trial for crimes against humanity
- 12 sentenced to death
- Held individuals responsible for actions under order
6 mill Jews
2-3 mill Soviet POW
2 mill Ethnic Poles
Medical Experiments
Military Purposes
High Altitude Tests
Freezing Tests
Pharmaceutical Purposes
New Drugs
Bone Grafting
Mustard Gas Antidote
Racial Purposes
Dr. Mengele
Reaction by different races
Jewish Inferiority
Full transcript