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ICT Paper 2
Transcript of ICT Paper 2
Hot Topics Robotic and embedded control Stock control and order processing Expert systems in medicine Booking systems Robotics Embedded control the role robots play in society. advantages and disadvantages of robots. what a robot is and the different tasks they can carry out A robot is a machine that can be programmed to perform a sequence of actions.
Robots can be used for a variety of tasks:
Repetitive jobs such as boring jobs
that require the same sequence of movements
over a long period.
E.g. Robotic arm replacing circuit components Used in hostile places -
exposure to temperatures people can not survive in
or toxic fumes Precision jobs, such as in medical operations
where a humans hand might be a bit shaky Lifting things that a human would find hard to do.
Such as in a car manufacturing plant Consistency of quality in work.
No breaks are required.
No need to be paid.
Creation of new jobs to service the robots.
They can carry out boring or dangerous jobs.
Installation and programming costs.
Issues with being put into new situations, due to capacity to analysis a new situation robots might not respond with the appropriate action.
Unemployment as a result of a robot being installed.
9 out of 10 robots in existence today are Industrial robots.
This means that robot are working for people in many places such as:
Factories, Laboratories, Warehouses, Energy plants and Hospitals.
Several years ago, the majority of robots that '"worked" were used in car manufacturing companies.
These robots worked on assembly lines doing a variety of tasks.
Now only half the robots in the world are busy building cars.
The other half are spread out among the other industries listed above.
What is embedded control? An embedded computer is a single chip that contains all of the elements that are essential for any computer i.e.
Another term often used for an embedded computer is a 'micro controller'. This is because the main purpose of an embedded computer is to control something.
Things that contain embedded controllers: Telephones Televisions Cameras Washing machines Microwave cookers Dishwashers Cars Programming A computer programme is a sequence of ordered instructions that a computer can execute.
Roberts can be programmed in two ways:
Guiding the robot through the actions manually, allowing the robot to ‘remember’ the moves. A robot has sensors built into it which are used to detect objects.
The sensors aid moving robots to detect objects, as well as grip and turn objects.
The data from these sensors is called the INPUT for the controlling program.
OUTPUT from program consists of control signals that causes the robot to perform a number of tasks.
Uses sensors A large database which stores bookings. Searches can also be made to find out if there is availability for the customers booking. Examples Travel Agent Airline Theatre Ticket booking company Advantages and disadvantages of booking systems It shouldn’t be possible to double book a ticket eg you won’t have 2 people booked for the same seat at the same performance on the same date.
Fast response to queries about seat availability from customers.
Initial costs of buying and installing software for a booking system are high.
Online booking systems Many booking systems are web-based and bookings can be made through the Internet.
A theatre may have information about its performances on a website where you can check if seats are available and the ticket prices.
Some websites can look for seats in a number of theatres so if you can’t find want you want in one it may be available in another.
2 different types of booking systems Multi User Systems Some booking systems are multi-access systems.
For example: Each branch of a travel agent may have workstations connected to a central computer. The agency branches may be all over the country and the main computer may be in London.
Each branch computer has a network link directly to the main computer, which stores the booking database. Summary Booking systems allow customers to book holidays, travel tickets, theatre seats etc.
A large database stores data on bookings and can be interrogated for availability.
A computerised booking system avoids the possibility of double booking it is a real-time transaction system.
Some booking systems operate over the Internet. Simulate the knowledge and skill of an expert.
Contain a large database of knowledge to be interrogated.
Search tools can quickly find information. Contains a set of rules or Inference Engine:
A clever piece of software that allows the computer to make deductions based on the facts that have been input and the data in the knowledge database.
An expert system is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) application, whose purpose is to use facts and rules, taken from the knowledge of many human experts in a particular field, to help make decisions and solve problems. Advantages Disadvantages human experts can be expensive to train
many copies can be made of an expert system
expert systems can contain knowledge from many people
people can be less embarrassed talking to a machine
computer programs do not get tired, bored or become ill
they don’t have 'bad days' it is not easy to gather the data and rules for the computer
they are inflexible, have no 'common sense' and have no human warmth (empathy)
nobody can be sure they are programmed correctly so they might make dangerous mistakes
expert systems cannot acquire and adapt to new knowledge without reprogramming Expert Systems are programs that mimic the intelligence of a human expert in a specific field of knowledge or experience.
They are often used when experts are not easily available, or are too expensive, e.g. to give medical advice.
This works by using a database of stored information on computer about medical conditions. An expert gives the computer a set of rules to use when making a diagnosis. The administration of stock levels. The stock level of an item is the number of that item in store. A good stock control system will... Keep track of exactly how many of each item are in stock.
Be able to say which items need re-ordering and order more goods.
Analyse which items are selling well or not and Adjusting supply levels based on the results.
Analyse sales patterns which can be adjusted for the different times on the year. Jumpers at Christmas and winter clothing.
If the stock control system isnt good.... Customers could take their custom elsewhere if the goods they want are out of stock. If there are too many of the same goods on shelves then this is unnecessary expense and a source of waste.
Automatic stock control Some shops use barcodes and POS terminals for automatic stock control.
A computer stores a master file with records of every item held in stock. One field would be the item's stock level. Every time an item is bought, the barcode is scanned and the computer will deduct 1 from the stock level for that item. The computer will know exactly how many of that item are in stock.
A similar system would operate in a warehouse. Each item removed would be logged and the stock level automatically adjusted.
This would be an example of a real-time system. Data is processed as soon as it is received and the system is always up-to-date.
Batch processing Other Shops operate a batch processing system where there is a stock master file, holding the details of all the goods the business either sells or buys.
When the stock level falls below the reorder level a order is then placed for more stock to the supplier. Reorder level: A transaction file is a temporary file of recent sales or purchases. The transaction file up dates the master file.
Transaction file: Types of ordering Post Online ...through the post on order forms. These will need to be entered onto the computer as records on the orders file.
...online. Customers send orders by email or over the Internet. These orders would be saved in the orders file.
Customers may buy goods from a business by sending an order which will have details of which items they want to buy and how many. The orders file would have fields with information about ...
the date of the order.
item details and quantities.
money owing or received from the customer Appropriate data validation will take place when the orders are entered.
Data validation is used to check that data is sensible before it is processed.