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Transcript of Kounin
While helping a student, monitor the rest of the class, keep track of the time, and handle disruptions.
When the class is engaged in a discussion, listen to student answers, observe other students for signs of understanding or confusion, watch the class for misbehaviors, and be ready with the next question. Effective teachers demonstrate withitness.
They are aware of student behaviors and all events and activities in the classroom.
Teachers have "eyes in the back of their heads" Desists are tactics a teacher uses to stop misbehavior.
In order to be effective, a desist should be spoken clearly.
Being firm does not necessarily impact the effectiveness of the desist. Pros
Desists have the potential for a ripple effect.
when a teacher corrects the behavior of one student and other students misbehaviors are corrected as well Cons
Desists can be threatening.
result in less relaxed students
reduced feelings of teacher likability Overlapping is similar to multitasking. Teachers overlap when they have two matters to deal with at the same time. Kounin believes that teachers who are good at overlapping are better able to demonstrate withitness. Examples of overlapping
a teacher acknowledging a students misbehavior (through eye contact) while continuing to teach the lesson
a teacher talking to a student while monitoring the class Overview of Kounin's Instructional Management Model Withitness, overlapping, and desists are teacher behaviors that impact student conduct
The flow of instruction is important to the effectiveness of the lesson and also influences student behavior. Jerkiness, thrust, dangles, and fragmentation are a few terms Kounin used to describe movement in the classroom.
Keeping the group focused is possible through appropriate instructional strategies will keep misbehavior's at bay Group Focus Group Focus is when a teacher consciously attempts to keep the attention of all students at all times. Key factors of group focus
Group alerting is keeping students on their toes and involved in learning tasks.
Positive alerting is when teachers create suspense in the classroom.
Negative alerting is when a teacher focuses on one student's performance instead of the entire class.
Group Accountability is holding the students accountable for their
Teachers can use check lists or task cards to communicate to the students that they are aware of their progress and the students are held responsible for their performance. Flip-Flops Satiation occurs when the teachers lose the students' attention because they have taught for too long. This results in a decrease in quality of work and an increase in mistakes made by the students. How to avoid satiation
always have additional work to extend the lesson
observe the class for signs of disinterest and be flexible enough to change activities if necessary Don't be a jerk! Kounin describes jerkiness as the lack of smoothness and momentum in the classroom.
Moving from one topic or activity to another without notifying the students is an example of jerkiness. Avoid jerkiness in the classroom by
not asking questions that do not pertain to the lesson
asking students to wait to ask questions that do not relate to the specific lesson
focusing on (not changing) the learning topic Stimulus Bound Teachers are stimulus bound when they allow themselves to become distracted when the students are engaged. Thrust Kounin describes a thrust as the sudden interruption by the teacher during an activity with an order, statement, or question. This results in a loss of focus and momentum. Dangles and Truncations Dangle occurs when a teacher begins an activity but begins another without finishing the first. Truncation occurs when a teacher does not resume the dropped activity. This results in a lack of smoothness during the lesson. Dangles and truncations cause student misbehavior. Slowdowns:
Overdwelling & Fragmentation Fragmentation occurs when the teacher breaks down a lesson or activity into too many parts even though it could be performed as a single unit. Recognizing fragmentation
observe the students for signs of disinterest
decide if it has been too long since a question has been asked or an encouraging point has been made
ask how much time, realistically, should be spent on the lesson Both slowdowns relate to instructional movement in the classroom. Overdwelling occurs when a teacher spends more time than is necessary on either student behavior or a lesson. Flip-flops occur during transition points. An example of a flip-flop is when a teacher ends an activity, begins another, then reverts back to the first activity.