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11-2 Conflict Over Land
Transcript of 11-2 Conflict Over Land
EQ: How did Andrew Jackson's presidency affect Native Americans?
Trail of Tears
In 1835, some Cherokee signed The Treaty of new Echota, giving up their people's land.
With Senate approval by a single vote, the Cherokee were removed from their land.
Cherokee Chief, John Ross wrote a letter to the U.S. government explaining that the small group who signed the treaty didn't represent the whole people. He asked the government not to enforce the treaty. -- Jackson refused the plea
When Jackson's successor began Cherokee removal in 1838, he sent General Winfield Scott, with 7,000 federal troops to invade the Cherokee Nation
Native American Resistance
The Sauk chieftain, Black Hawk, led a group of Sauk and Fox people back to Illinois, their homeland. They were approached by 4,500 soldiers and were killed in their retreat to the Mississippi River
1835- The Seminole resisted removal and joined a group of African American run away slaves. Together, they attacked Florida settlements with guerrilla tactics. These attacks resulted in 1,500 American soldiers deaths... the U.S. allowed them to stay in Florida.
1842-Few lived east of the Mississippi giving up more than 100 million acres of Eastern land to the U.S. government.
The Five Civilized Tribes settled peacefully in Oklahoma with the Plains groups
Settled new homes, developed governments, farms, schools, and police force.
Indian Removal Act
As pioneers moved westward, they encountered "The Five Civilized Tribes"- the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw- living in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida..These tribes were established farming societies with successful economies.
Many settlers wanted the farm land for themselves and pushed the federal government to relocate Native Americans living in this Southeast area to move them west.
Jackson had fought the Creek and Seminole peoples in Georgia and Florida, and provided his intentions in his inaugural speech to move the Natives to the Great Plains wasteland where they could be left alone.
1830- The Indian Removal Act allowed the government to pay the Native Americans to move West. Most tribes willingly accepted the treaties.
1834- Congress created the Indian territory, present-day Oklahoma, for the relocation of the Native Americans.
Cherokee refused to give up their lands as treaties in the 1790s recognized the Cherokee in Georgia as a separate nation. Georgia did not recognize the Cherokee authority.
The Cherokee sued in the Supreme Court case, Worcester v. Georgia (1832).
Chief Justice Marshall ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee, only the federal government had power over the Cherokee matters.
President Jackson ignored the ruling saying, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it."
Results of the Trail of Tears
Around 2,000 Cherokee died in camps waiting for the move to being
About 20,000 Cherokees were marched westward at gunpoint on the infamous Trail of Tears.
Nearly a quarter perished on the way, with the remainder left to seek survival in a completely foreign land.