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Transcript of Hooligans
What can be done?
George Orwell (1941): England is “the most class-ridden country under the sun.”
Poll: More than two-thirds think neither they nor their children will leave the class they were born into.
Identifying markers: occupation, address, accent and income (in that order).
People generally identify with the class they were born into - rather than that which their jobs or income would suggest.
(Economist/What's up, Britain?)
Dina (American student living in London):
Class differences remain in Britain because of a lack of working-class belief in the political system. "In America even the poorest worker believes in the old saying that all Americans can make it 'from the log cabin to the White House'... But in Britain ordinary people don't have that faith in their institutions. They believe the middle classes will always grab the best jobs and that makes them very cynical."
(Decade of Contrasts)
89% say they are judged by class.
55% of poorest people say that class, not ability, greatly affects the way they are seen.
After 10 years of Labour government, social change in Britain is almost static.
(Britain - Past and Present)
Hooliganism started in Argentina (which has a totally different social and cultural profile from Britain's).
Hooliganism attracted followers from more "respectable" homes, who wanted to prove their "masculinity".
Hooliganism has been associated with skinhead culture.
"Fear is a drug"
"I was trained to fight and I couldn't turn it off"
(From where you are)
Fighting outside stadiums
"You call up the leader of the other firm and say, 'Right, meet you at Trafalgar Square at two.' And then you hope the police don't get there before it goes off.."
"fighting has lost its spontaneity"
"If football violence doesn't take place in the stadium, is it even football violence?
the hooligan is a romantic rebel
(From where you are)
"More seriously is the occurrence of the new hooligans who are claimed to plan actions with an almost military-style strategy. The new hooligans have in contrary to 'the old trouble makers' developed a more sophisticated style, both in their clothing and their warfare. They have plenty of money, escape the attention of the police by having season tickets and arrive sober. Furthermore they are in their twenties and have relatively skilled jobs."
(I'm fuckin' lovin' it!)
Giddens, Ziehe, Beck
Kerr: Reversal Theory
"The conformism of youth, the passion for likeness within groups or 'tribes', the phenomena of fashion, standardized culture, up to and including unisexualization of appearance, permits us to claim that what we are witnessing is the loss of the idea of the individual in favour of a much less distinct mass."
"Surely, if sports such as snowboarding and bungee jumping are about placing yourself at risk and overcoming your fears to experience elation and relief, it does not take a genius to work out that exactly the same things applies to hooliganism."
"- I'm fuckin' lovin' it!"
Voice over (point of view)
Roles (and gender)
Values and choices
Themes (e.g. strength vs.
Stereotypes (US - UK)
Suspense (set up/pay off)
The attraction? Why violence?
Family and negligence
"Within Britain the tabloid press in particular have found hooliganism to be an easy target for the kind of sensationalist reporting that boosts their circulation. This sensationalist style of reporting often relies on powerful headlines grounded in violent imagery and war metaphors whilst articles are regularly 'edited for impact'. This style of reporting has developed over the past 50 years sparked by the moral panic of the 1950's at the rise of juvenile crime and delinquency. Some argue that the tabloids’ style of reporting, such as the publishing of league tables of hooligan notoriety (Daily Mirror 1974) serve to encourage hooligans by placing them in the limelight. The tabloids have also been accused of helping to incite hooliganism by promoting xenophobia. For instance prior to England's semi-final clash with Germany in Euro 96 the Daily Mirror ran a headline of 'Achtung Surrender' whilst the Sun went with 'Let's Blitz Fritz'".
Role of media?
"'amplification spiral' of sensationalist media"
Soccer violence an international problem
Second class citizens?
"Back in the day you were in no doubt that you became a second class citizen as soon as you walked into a football ground; open-air toilets, fences and police officers who knew they had free rein to treat you like the scum they obviously thought you were."
(see I'm fuckin' loving it)
Identification of hooligans
Cameras and (Internet) surveillance
- Questions of human rights and civil liberties?