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Genes and dominance

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Tawna Peters

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of Genes and dominance

Finally Put everything away. I will
pass out
notecards for today's
Ticket Out the Door!!! Traits Genes and Dominance A trait is a specific characteristic (like seed color, plant height, hitch-hiker's thumb) that varies from one individual to another.

Genotype - genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype - physical characteristics of an organism Generations Original parents are labeled "P" for parental generation.

Their offspring are called "F1" for first filial generation.

Filial and filia and latin words for son and daughter.

The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits are called Hybrids! The Principle of Dominance The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.

Dominant allele always shows, and is represented by a capital letter, usually the first letter of the dominant phenotype (Tall plant = T).

The recessive allele will show when no dominant allele is present, and is represented by a lowercase letter (short plant = t) Genes Genes are the chemical factors that are passed from one generation to the next. These factors determine traits!

Alleles are the different forms of a gene (gene is plant height - allele for tall plant or short plant). Segregation Gametes are sex cells.

Segregation - During gamete formation, alleles separate from each other so that each gamete carries only one copy of each gene.

When they come together, genotype can be homozygous (same) Dominant - TT or Recessive - tt

can be heterozygous (different) - Tt 1) What is the genotype for a homozygous tall plant (Tall is dominant)?

2) Define the word allele.

3) If a person has two alleles that are different, or opposite, for that trait, the person is said to be ____________________ for that trait. Independent Assortment What about exceptions to Mendel's work? The principle of independent assortment says that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

This helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants and animals and people!! Incomplete dominance - one allele is not completely dominant over another (red flower + white flower = pink flower) Codominance - Both alleles contribute to the phenotype. (red flower + white flower = red and white flower). Multiple alleles - more than two allele possibilities exist (rabbit coat color, or human blood types) Polygenic traits - traits that are controlled by two or more genes (more than four genes make human skin color) Incomplete dominance: Codominance:
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