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Transcript of Kalabagh Dam
ADEEL BABAR (12105009)
SALMAN YOUNAS (12105029)
FAQIR M. SHAKEEL (12105034)
ZOHAIB KHALID (12105058)
Artificial reservoirs that are built to store the surplus water of peak flows of a season to inject it back in the system in the forthcoming water-shortage season are called dams.
The Kalabagh dam is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Indus River at Kalabagh in Mianwali District of the Punjab province in Pakistan. It is located on river Indus 100 miles south-west of Pakistan’s capital Islamabad.
If constructed with 3,800 MW electricity generation capacity, it will become the largest source of electricity for Pakistan.
Kalabagh dam was initiated in 1953.
Until 1973, the project was basically considered as a storage project for meeting the irrigation needs.
The project planning report, circulated in March 1984, tried to establish the technical and economic feasibility of the project.
The feasibility study and documentation have cost around one billion rupees so far.
Dam type Earthfill
Height (above riverbed) 79 m
Length 3,3352 m
Area at retention level 164 sq miles
Catchment area 110,500 sq miles
Gross storage capacity 7,900,000 acre foot
Live storage capacity 6,100,000 acre foot
Dead storage 1,800,000 acre foot
Retention level 915 feet
Main spillway capacity 1,070,000 cubic feet/s
Design flood discharge 1,920,000 cubic feet/s
Hydropower generation 3.6 GW
Maximum discharge 1,200,000 cubic feet/s
Total volume of dam 34,000,000 cubic yards
1. To compensate water shortage.
2. To minimize flood hazards.
3. To generate large amounts of low-cost hydroelectric power.
4. To provide additional storage on the Indus River and thus, reducing the shortfalls in irrigation requirements.
5. A lot of publicity is being made that a huge quantity of about 36MAF is flowing to the sea on the average which should be utilized by building new storages like Kalabagh Dam.
6. The effects of Kalabagh dam on agricultural production, such as tobacco, sugarcane and maize.
7. Reducing dependence on imported fuels.
8. Additional water from Kalabagh can enhance crop production in three ways:-
–By irrigating new land.
–By enhancing cropping intensity on existing land.
–By enhancing yields.
1. Electricity Production:
–KBD would supply cheap hydro-electric power to the whole country.
–KBD would produce almost 3.6 GW.
2. The non-agricultural factor would be trained in various trades in the Training Institutes to be established in the Model Village.
3. Employment opportunities:
–Almost 35000 direct and indirect.
4. Dam will provide water for irrigation of four million acres:
–380,000 acres in Minawali, Khushab and Jehlam
–2,150,000 acres in D.I. Khan.
5. Water Reservation (6.65 MAF water annually).
LOCATION & IMPORTANCE
NEED OF KALABAGH DAM
NEED OF KALABAGH DAM
1. INTRODUCTION 11. CONCLUSION
2. HISTORY 12. QUESTIONS
3. KEY FACTS
7. PROVINCES VIEW-POINT
9. PRESENT SITUATION
FUNCTIONS OF DAMS:-
1. To generate electricity (hydropower).
2. Supply of water for human consumption.
3. Irrigation of agricultural lands.
4. Flood control.
1. National food security would be jeopardized, thus subjecting the economy to additional burden of importing food grains.
2. Water logging of Punjab’s and NWFP’s cultivated land.
3. The annual energy generated at Kalabagh is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil. This annual import of fuel for thermal generation, including augmentation of transportation infrastructure would be an additional burden to the economy.
4. The dam will also have adverse impacts on the environment.
5. It will also displace a large number of people:
–34,000 in NWFP. –59,000 in Punjab.
6. Telecommunication, power lines and gas lines will also require relocation.
7. 182,000 acres of productive land will be lost under the reservoir.
•Pakistan hasn't built the dam and has also barrened a large area of Punjab province by taking out three rivers.
•Punjab's view is also based on the fact that a dam of above 3GW production can finish all the energy crisis of Pakistan.
•Punjab has also agreed not to claim any royalty on generation of resources from Kalabagh dam, yet they are not trusted by other provinces.
• Sindh objects that their share of the Indus water will be curtailed as water from the Kalabagh will go to irrigate farmlands in Punjab and NWFP at their cost.
•With the construction of dams, such as Mangla Dam and Tarbela Dam across the Indus, Sindhis fear that there simply is not enough water for another large dam across the Indus.
•Sindhis hold that their rights as the lower riparian have precedence according to international water distribution law.
•Sindh’s claim that even the earlier 1991 IndusWater-Sharing Accord, the document already guaranteed by the constitutional body, the Council of Common Interests, has been violated, and that Punjab has "stolen" their water.
•The fact that KPK will suffer the adverse consequences of the reservoir but not get royalties is seen as unfair.
•Concerns that large areas of Nowshera District would be submerged by the dam and even wider areas would suffer from water-logging and salinity as has occurred with the Tarbela Dam.
•The Baloch are not directly affected by the dam as such:
–most nationalist Baloch Sardars see the dam as another instance of Punjab lording it over the smaller provinces.
–By opposing the dam they are signalling their disaffection with being the poorest province and most neglected of all in development.
•Trust deficit between the Punjab on one side and the other three provinces on the other.
•It would still take at least eight years to complete and commission such a large dam. In the meantime, the water situation would continue to worsen.
•Smaller dams, barrages, and canals must be built before that and water conservation techniques introduced.
BARRIERS/ PRESENT SITUATION
•One of the reasons for creating controversy and difference of opinion on the project is attributed to WAPDA’s failure to adequately consult the provinces at the project planning and design stage
•Cost of Project is increasing continuously from the time of its announcements.
–At present he dam is expected to cost around US $ 8 billion.
• In December 2004, General Pervez Musharraf, President of Pakistan, announced that he would build the dam in the larger interest of Pakistan.
• On May 26, 2008, Federal Minister for Water and Power of Pakistan, Raja Pervez Ashraf, said that the "Kalabagh Dam would not be constructed" and the project has been cancelled. He said due to the "opposition from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and other stakeholders, the project was no longer feasible".
• However, after the worst flood (2010) in Pakistan, the prime minister of Pakistan, Yousaf Raza Gilani, stated that the devastation of floods would be less if Kalabagh dam were built.
• The PM announced that the fate of the project would be decided by a plebiscite.
• The decision came after Pakistan faced extreme power crisis and acute water shortages. The government is currently finding alternative locations for the dam.
•Pakistan depends almost entirely on the flows of Indus System for surface water supplies for its requirements of irrigated agriculture so Kalabagh Dam must be built.
•Water is God-gifted asset for any country. In future, mostly economy will depend on the water. So, there should be a project to reserve the water for future use and Kalabagh Dam is our one of the biggest project which can solve this problem.
•At this time of trouble, people of Pakistan should show the unity and should support the project which is in favor of whole economy by setting aside their personal grudges.
•Pakistan is an agricultural country and its more than 65% families are engaged with it, so they need water to grow crops. So, there should be irrigation system that can support our economy. That's why it should be built.
•Recently, Pakistan purchased Rental Power project which is a great burden on the economy of Pakistan, so as we all know that Kalabagh Dam can produce electricity at cheap rate, so it should be built.
•The dam can provide more than 35,000 direct and indirect job opportunities and with the construction of Kalabagh Dam, there can be established a Model Village and with its help our non agricultural sector can also progress.
Kalabagh dam has both positive and negative effects for our nation but positive ones are more than negative ones, because in present and near future our economy will depend on a large dam like Kalabagh. So, it should be built on top priority basis.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAM AND BARRAGE
=> Water Distribution Organization