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The Progressive Era
Transcript of The Progressive Era
During the The Progressive Era, America experienced a new wave of immigration.
U. S government opened an immigration station in 1892 on Ellis Island in New York Harbor.
Within 62 years, 112 million immigrants came over.
1893, U.S immigration law made it so people had to be approved by steamship authorities before going on board;this meant a medical examination.
It’s estimated that nearly half of all Americans can trace family origins back to Ellis Island.
Many Groups came for different reasons...
Most settled in crowded cities
low paying, unskilled jobs
lived in poor housing in teeming slums, near factories
After the 1973, the economy was declining and Americans blamed Chinese for taking away jobs.
In 1882, Congress passed Chinese Exclusion Act that banned Chinese immigration for 10 years.
It was renewed in 1892, and in 1902 Congress banned Chinese immigration indefinitely.
Nationalists opposed immigration not only from Asia, but also from Southern and Eastern Europe. America's thought they didn’t fit into society because they were poor, illiterate, or non- protestant.
Effects of immigration
Immigrants strengthened American Society.
They kept factories running and helped build cities.
Drastically changed American population and became more diverse than ever.
1910, about 1 in 12 Americans had been born in a foreign country.
Native- born Americans saw them as a threat to society. They were blamed for crime, poverty, and violence. They were also considered a threat to the economy.
With immigration, urbanization increased.
According to USA.gov, in the 30 percent of the total population lived in cities by 1900.
Many lived in cities to be near factories they worked at.
One in three people that lived in cities were starving to death.
Cities were overcrowded, inadequate water facilities, unpaved streets, and diseases.
Benevolent societies: aid organizations to help immigrants get jobs, health care, or education
U.S. Constitution analyzed through Supreme Court decisions including Plessy v. Ferguson.
In 1883 the supreme court declared that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional.
They ruled that the 14th amendment guarantees equal protection of law.
Congress could prevent the states from denying African Americans their rights but, Congress was not allowed to outlaw discrimination towards any people or any business.
13 years later there was a case that involved the Louisiana state law requiring railroads to provide “equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races.”
Homer Plessy was an African American who sat in an area on a train only for white people to test the law.
Plessy had white parents but is consider black because his great-grandfather was black.
Plessy argued that the Louisiana Separate Car Act of 1890 violated the 13th & 14th amendment which abolished slavery, and requires all people to be treated equally.
In the Plessy vs. Ferguson trial in 1896 the court upheld the practice of segregation.
The Plessy decision allowed legalized segregation for nearly 60 years.
Congress ruled separate but equal is constitutional.
Perceptions and characteristics on geographic regions in the United States over time & the creation of the National Park System.
Booker T. Washington believed African Americans should accept segregation for the time being.
Prosper by acquiring farming and vocational skills so they could be economy stable which made gaining rights easier. He walked a fine line between helping African Americans to advance and trying to avoid angering white Americans.
Formed Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to teach African Americans practical skills for self- sufficiency.
W.E.B. Du Bois believed in speaking out against prejudice and striving for full rights immediately.
Equality meant opportunities to achieve of the highest levels.
He didn't believe economy stability wouldn't be possible without rights.
1905, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
In 1872 Congress passed a law that set aside land in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho as Yellowstone National Park.
They wanted these locations to be significant due to the lands natural wonders and wildlife.
Over time the government founded more land across the U.S in 1919
Goals of the Progressive Era
Although there were laws guarantee rights to African Americans, prejudice persisted throughout the country that made discrimination legal.
1. Protect the Social Welfare-governmental
provision of economic assistance to people in need
2. Promote Moral Improvement- the need for positive changes in people's character
3. Create Economic Reform- government changes in policies toward business
4. Foster Efficiency- use natural resources more efficiently
Jim Crow Laws: Laws that enforced segregation, examples of this were the poll tax, and the grandfather clause. States could punish people for associating with members of another race.
Poll tax: Poll tax was a voting tax, which required voters to pay a fee, and take a literacy test. These requirements made it difficult for the majority of African Americans to vote. Most African Americans did not have enough money, or had no previous education.
Grandfather Clauses: Though the same rules applied to white men, the grandfather clause stated that they were allowed to vote if they or the previous men in his family were allowed to vote before January 1, 1867. This is significant because before that date African Americans could not yet vote.
Racial Etiquette -strict rules of behavior that governed the social and business interactions of white and black American’s.
Lynching- murdering another individual by a group or a mob. Usually by hanging without a legal trial. Between 1882 and 1892 up to 900 African Americans lost their lives to lynch mobs. Lynching declined after that and continued up to the 1900’s.
Journalists known as "muckrakers" exposed everything from corruption in business to the living conditions of lower class Americans.
Ida Tarbell- Exposed Standard Oil for their questionable methods of eliminating competition.
Wrote the book
How the Other Half Lives.
He went to the places that most Americans didn’t have to see. He took photographs of every place he went to and exposed urban poverty in the United States.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Occurred in 1911 in New York at a factory that made women’s blouses .
Over 500 female workers
At the end of their last day of a 6-day shift, a fire erupted on the eighth floor. The flames quickly spread to two other floors.
Escaping was difficult because all the doors were locked to prevent theft and to keep workers in.
The elevator could only hold ten people, and the fire escape broke under the weight of all the women.
Workers started to jump from windows to escape from the fire.
Over 140 employees died.
The Triangle Shirtwaist fire led to more safety laws for the workplace, including a required fire safety plan, inspections, and sanitation improvements.
The 18th Amendment of the United States Constitution supported prohibition. In 1919 Congress approved the Amendment and in 1920 it was put into effect. The Amendment outlawed the manufacturing, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages. It didn’t prohibit the purchase or consumption of alcohol.
Suffragists convinced members of House and Senate to support a constitutional amendment. Even President Woodrow Wilson supported.
19th Amendment: Was an amendment that no state can deny citizens the right to vote based on sex. This was added to the Constitution in 1920 and meant women were given full voting rights.
The 18th Amendment
Prohibition was a time in the United States where alcohol was prohibited from being manufactured, sold, or transported. It was meant to protect individuals, families and society altogether from the effects of alcohol abuse.
The Grand Canyon became a national park and the Shenandoah National Park in Virginia was founded in 1935.
Many of these parks preserve the land for wildlife and natural wonders but, there are some parks that save land for cultural purposes.
Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado is famous for the Cliff Palace. This was built by Pueblo Indians about 800 years ago.
In the Caribbean, Virgin Islands National Park has ancient ruins and Danish sugar plantations.
Political Action Groups
Jacob Riis: April 1, 1904
Bodies from Washington Place fire, Mar 1911
In reality, it turned your average law-abiding citizen into a criminal. It caused drinking to
seem risky and fun.
Bottles and barrel of confiscated whiskey
[between 1921 and 1932]
U.S. inspectors examining eyes of immigrants, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, 1913
Susan B. Anthony
Right:From Immigration documents miscellany: Unidentified photographs
Left: From Scrapbooks on Chinese immigration, 1877-1893.
Cleveland Gazett:"Grandfather" Clause 08/18/1900
NAACP [advertisement] 04/24/1920
Hester Street, 1902
Map of the Yellowstone National Park 1801
Susan B. Anthony was a woman's right activist in 1848, through the next 50 years woman's rights activists worked hard to spread and gain support for women. Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and other women’s rights pioneers, suffragists created petitions and lobbied Congress to pass a Constitutional Amendment to enfranchise women. She wrote pamphlets and made speeches to campaign.
1848, Seneca Falls Convention met to campaign for women's rights.
I868when the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified , it still didn't give women the right to vote although freed African American men could.
American Woman Suffrage Association was founded in 1872 that focused on the right to vote on a state-by-state basis. 12 states granted women the right to vote. Renamed National Woman's Party in 1916.
1875, Supreme Court ruled that although women were citizens, they still couldn't vote. States could grant or with hold the right.
American Anthem, Grades 9-12 Reconstruction to the Present-ohio Holt Mcdougal American Anthem Ohio. N.p.: Holt McDougal, 2009. Print.
"Cities in the Progressive Era - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress." Cities in the Progressive Era - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress. USA.gov, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/progress/cities/>.
"Denton Independent School District / Overview." Denton Independent School District / Overview. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://www.dentonisd.org/site/default.aspx?PageID=1>.
"Library of Congress Home." Library of Congress Home. USA.gov, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2014. <http://www.loc.gov/index.html>.
"Muckrakers." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, 2014. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/42b.asp>.
"Women in the Progressive Era." Women in the Progressive Era. National Women's History Museum, 2007. Web. 01 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/progressiveera/suffrage.html>.
Old Immigrants: wanted a voice in the government, escape political turmoil, and religious freedom. Most came in search of economic opportunity.
America seemed desirable compared to Europe’ because of it's dramatically increasing population.