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Confucius

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Fatmata Kargbo

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Confucius

Taoism
Other Facts about Taoism
Taoism 20 million followers.
Both Confucianism and Taoism are very unlike more Middle Eastern religions such as Christianity or Islam in the sense that they are not so hierarchically structured with one recognized leader or organization that establishes parameters for the religion. Because of this, any denominations that do exist of either Confucianism or Taoism tend to be unorganized and not with a very large number of adherents, therefore most adherents of Confucianism or Taoism don’t actually express belonging to any particular sect of either religion, but instead that they are simply Confucianist or Taoist.
In no area is the lack of a single unified Taoist belief system more evident than in the case of concepts about the afterlife and salvation. Several factors have contributed to this: 1) Taoism was at no point the only religion of China, but, rather, coexisted with Confucianism and Buddhism, as well as with Chinese folk religion; 2) each Taoist sect had its own beliefs and textual traditions, and these underwent changes over time; and 3) death and the afterlife became the province of Buddhism early in Chinese history, so that most ideas about the afterlife are Buddhist, or were developed in reaction to Buddhism.
Taoism Religious Leaders were Fan Changsheng, Kou Qianzhi, Qiu Chuji, Wang Chongyang, Wei Huacun, and Zhang Daoling,
Wei Huacun: was the only woman to play role in the eminence of Taoism
Zhang Daoling: Zhang composed a Taoist work that attracted many followers among Chinese and indigenous groups in Sichuan.
Qiu Chuji: was a Taoist and alchemist. His disciple Li
Conclusion
And that is the history for Taoism and Confucianism now time to put what you learned into a game that will test your skills....
孔夫子
THE BEGINNINGS OF CONFUCIANISM
Confucianism and Taoism
Confucius was born in 551 BC in the small feudal state of Lu (which is now 'Shandong Province). At the age of three Confucius dad died, so he was first instructed by his mom. As a teen he was considered a passionate learner.
At the age of 67 Confucius returned home to teach and to preserve his cherished classical traditions by writing and editing. He died in 479 BC, at the age of 73.

Confucius is recorded as summarizing his life this
Confucianism does not really begin with Confucius, nor was Confucius the founder of Confucianism in the same way that Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. Rather, Confucius considered himself a transmitter who consciously tried to retrieve the meaning of the past by breathing vitality into seemingly outmoded rituals. Confucius' love of antiquity was motivated by his strong desire to understand why certain rituals, such as the ancestral cult, reverence for Heaven, and mourning ceremonies, had survived for centuries. He had faith in the cumulative power of culture. Confucius' sense of history was so strong that he saw himself as a conservationist responsible for the continuity of the cultural values and the social norms that had worked so well for the civilization of the Chou dynasty.

Basics of Confucianism
- Confucius was considered a teacher/ founder of Confucianism

- Confucianism began in China and dispersed from there. After it spread through South East and East Asia. It also began to get popular in places like Japan, Korea, and Vietnam as well.

-He wandered through many states of China, giving advice to their rulers. He accumulated a small band of students during this time. The last years of his life were spent back in Lu, where he devoted himself to teaching.

-Confucius, also known as Kung the Master, is referred to as the "first teacher" and as the editor of the Chinese culture

Confucians believe that...

1. Humans are naturally good
2. Education is strongly emphasized
3. You should respect and follow your elders
4. Being polite is very important
5. Yin and Yang represent opposite forces that keep balance and harmony in nature.
6. Your ancestors should be worshipped as they help provide you guidance.

Main Concepts
Jen (wren): human heartedness; goodness; benevolence, man-to-man-ness; what makes man distinctively human

The man of jen will sacrifice his life to preserve jen, and conversely it is what makes life worth living.

Jen is a sense for the dignity of human life--a feeling of humanity towards others and self-esteem for yourself.

His first principle of Confucianism is to act according to jen: it is the ultimate guide to human action.

Li (Lee): principle of gain, benefit, order, propriety; concrete guide to human action.
Two basic meanings to li: (1) concrete guide to human relationships or rules of proper action that genuinely embody jen and (2) general principle of social order or the general ordering of life. (Confucius recognized that you need a well ordered society for wren to be expressed.)

The Five Relationships
1. Father and son( loving / reverential)
2. Elder brother and younger brother( gentle / respectful)
3. Husband and Wife( good / listening)
4. Older friend and younger friend( considerate / deferential)
5. Ruler and subject( benevolent / loyal)

Respect for age:
age gives all things their worth: objects, institutions, and individual lives. Every action affects someone else--there are limits to individuality. Yi (yee); righteousness; the moral disposition to do good (also a necessary condition for jen or for the superior man).
Yi
connotes a moral sense: the ability to recognize what is right and good; the ability to feel, under the circumstances what the right thing to do is. The value in the act is the rightness of the action regardless of the intention or the consequences of the act
.
A person does all actions for the sake of yi because they are the right thing to do.

A person does all actions for the sake of jen because respect for humanity implies the right human way to act

Chih (chee)
: moral wisdom; the source of this virtue is knowledge of right and wrong. Chih is added to Confucianism by Mencius (muhn shoos) who believed that people are basically born well.
Te (day)
: power by which men are ruled; the power of moral example (the whole art of government consists in the art of being honest). Government is good if it can maintain (1) economic sufficiency, (2) military sufficiency, and (3) confidence of the people.



Confucianism began in China and dispersed from there. After it spread through South East and East Asia. It also began to get popular in places like Japan, Korea, and Vietnam as well.

Neo-Confucianism - Developed during the Song and Ming Dynasties, but created by Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. This was an attempt at creating a more rational and secular form of Confucianism than the original that had been influenced by the more religious aspects of Buddhism and Taoism.

Confucius said heaven and the afterlife were beyond human capacity to understand, and one should therefore concentrate instead on doing the right thing in this life. The earliest records from his students indicate that he did not provide many moral precepts; rather he taught an attitude toward one's fellow humans of respect, particularly respect for one's parents, teachers, and elders. He also encouraged his students to learn from everyone they encountered and to honor others' cultural norm.

Confucianism has 5-6 million Adherents
Because Confucianism lacks an actual god or deity, there tend to be less actual symbols commonly associated with the religion, but a few that do show up relatively often is the Chinese character for water because it is simple in nature and flows, representing the nature of Confucianism.

Modern day views/practices: Confucianism is characterized by a highly optimistic view of human nature. Confucianism does not prescribe any specific rituals or practices. Some practices fill the practice of Chinese Religion, Taoism, Buddhism, or any other religions Confucius follows.

Taoism was formed in
550
BC in the country of China. It has
20,000,000 followers,
and it's deity is pantheistic.
The three sacred texts are Zhuangzi, Daode Jing, Yi Jing.
Taoism, also known as Daoism
, is an indigenous Chinese religion often associated with the Daode jing (Tao Te Ching), a philosophical and political text purportedly written by Laozi (Lao Tzu) sometime in the 3rd or 4th centuries B.C.E.
The Daode jing focuses on dao as a "way" or "path" — that is, the appropriate way to behave and to lead others — but the Daode jing also refers to Tao as something that existed "before Heaven and Earth," a primal and chaotic matrix from which all forms emerged.
Taoism did not exist as an organized religion until the Way of the Celestial Masters
sect was founded in
142 C.E.
by
Zhang Daoling
, who based the sect on spiritual communications from the deified Laozi.
The Way of the Celestial Masters and other later sects of Taoism engaged in complex ritual practices, including devotion to a wide range of celestial divinities and immortals, and thousands of Taoist religious texts were produced over the centuries.
Taoists also engaged with Chinese politics in a variety of ways throughout Chinese history
Taoism has
no centralized
authority and different sects have different headquarters.


Tao is the path the one must follow
The Tao is the natural order of all things and is based on the principles of
Yin and Yang.
Taoists believe that Tao is the universal life force or the underlying nature of all things that exist in the world.
In life our fundamental choice is to either acknowledge this reality and let ourselves become one with the Tao, or to resist what we are and attempt to establish our own separate identities outside of the Tao.
This idea of non action refers mainly to the constant interaction of Yin and Yang which are believed to govern the behavior of all things.
The five organs of the body correspond to the five directions, the five holy mountains, the sections of the sky, the seasons, and the elements. Taoists believe that by understanding man a person can comprehend the ultimate structure of the universe.
Taoists believe that there are Three Jewels, or characteristics, that all Taoists should live by. These jewels are stated in the Tao Te Ching. The three jewels are
compassion, moderation and humility
.
This compassion ultimately leads to courage, moderation leads to generosity, and humility leads to leadership. All these are necessary to return to the Tao.
Taoists, however,
do not pray to any of these Deities
. Unlike Christianity, for example,
Taoist gods are not personified. There is no god that can solve any of life's problems
.
Rather, Taoists seek the solutions to life's problems through personal meditation and observation.
Yin and Yang represents the balance of opposites in the universe. When they are equally present, all is calm

Next is the Yin and Yang. This symbol is less a Confucian symbol and more of Taoist one, but none the less, it is still commonly associated with Confucianism and Taoism both.
The Yin and Yang represent that all things in the universe have an inherent balance, but Yin and Yang don’t necessarily represent opposites to each other, but rather they are relative to each other instead.

Taoist Physical practices, such as breath exercises, massage, martial arts, yoga and meditation are designed to transform a person both mentally and physically and so bring them into closer harmony with the Tao.
Taoists also practice external alchemy (wai-dan),
which involves diet and the use of minerals and herbs to promote long life.
Alchemists are people who want to transform things into something more valuable. The first alchemists were seeking an elixir which could be used to turn cheap metal into gold.
Talismans
are objects thought to have the power to bring good luck.
They can also be used to remove or keep away evil spirits
.




Citations:
Brunnick, Leo, and Cathie Brunnick,. "Library." Confucianism Origins, Confucianism History, Confucianism Beliefs. Patheos, 2008. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

"China Confucianism: Life of Confucius, Influences, Development." China Confucianism: Life of Confucius, Influences, Development. Travel China Guide, 1998. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.
Confucianism," New Advent - Catholic Encyclopedia, at: www.newadvent.org (Year notation changed from BC to BCE.)Fingerette, Herbert., "Confucius: The Secular as Sacred (Religious Traditions of the World)Streng, Frederick, "Understanding Religious Life," 3rd ed. (1985), p. 2Taylor, Rodney L.,

Religious Dime Brunnick, Cathie, and Leo Brunnick. "Library." Taoism Ethics, Morality, Community, Taoism Leadership and Clergy. Patheos, 2008. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. “Confucianism” (1990);

Majka, Christopher. "Lao Tzu: Father of Taoism." Lao Tzu: Father of Taoism. Empty Mirrors Press, 2013. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.


Main Concepts
The Golden Rule
The Golden Rule we know today: "Treat others the way you would like to be treated."
The Early Version of the Golden Rule: "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself."
BY: Kaela White, Christine Le, Fatmata Kargbo
Kdsan Habtemariam, and Sebastian Williams
Full transcript