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Transcript of Cain5-6
in the middle? That is called the Nucleus. The Necleus is the central part of the atom and positively charged. Also the positively charged particles are called protons. The uncharged particles are called neutrons . And those small balls around it are called electrons, they are invisible and negatively charged particles The smallness of the atom is called a physical property. The definition of a physical property is a characteristic youcan observe without changing or trying to change the composition of the substance. For example color. We can compare this to me, my dashing looks are physical properties.
The chemical properties, is defined is a characteristic
that cannot be observed without altering the substance. For instance, my flamibility factor. Lets talk about changes now. Lets give a good example, say you hate me. You are jealous of my wonderful talents, so you decide to go beat me up. Too bad you got up instead. The bruises you just recieved were just physical changes was just changing your appearance and forms. If you were to get a flame thrower and heat me up, that would be considered a chemical change. This is because I can never go back to being Michael and I am in a different form. :( But lets talk about a bigger Idea. This is called the law of conversation of mass. It states that particles are never destroyed, but just rearranged. For example, For example. when you burn a candle.
THe candle mass is just being transfered into air. Lets talk about something different Asexual reproduction Asexual Reproduction is... A new organism is produced from one organism. Meaning it can reproduce with only itself During reproduction mitosis happens. Mitosis is the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei. Let's look more closely into Mitosis. The chromosomes in the necleus contain heredity material. Let's go on to a different version of asexual reproduction Sexual Production During Sexual Production, two sex cells come together. The two sex cells are sperm and eggs.
Sperm is the male reproduction organs, and eggs is
the female reproductive organ. Sperm is the Male reproduction organ, and the eggs are female reproduction organs. When the two meet it is called ferilization. When you are born a series of genes are passed on to you. This is called heredity. Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to off spring. The different forms of a trait that a gene may have is called alleles.
The study of these alleles and their interactions is called genetics.
THe stu Have you wondered why you only look like your dad? This may be because you are a hybrid and your dads traits are reccessive. A hybrid is when they recieve different genetic information from each parent. But now you wonder, whats a dominant gene and a reccesive. Well a dominant gene covers up or nullifies the reccessive genes. Is your heart beating fast because of this amazing presentation? Well lets go through your heart and try to make it not beat so fast. Your heart could be divided into 4 chambers. Theres atriums and ventricles, each of them have 2 chambers. Atriums are the upper ones, and ventricles are the lower ones. Blood flows from the atrium to a ventricle, and then into a blood vessel. A wall seperates the atrimus and ventricles. The wall keeps oxygen riched blood from mixing into oxygen poor blood. Your heart is made of a series of blood vessels.
and supply it with nutrients and oxygen and remove wastes. The flow of blood to and from tissues of the
heart is called Coronary circulation. Let's talk about the different types of circulation. Coronary Circulation is the flow of blood to and from the heart. When the circulation is blocked, a heart attack is the result. Pulminary circulation is when blood flows from the heart to the lungs and back. Systemic circulation is the flow of oxygen poor blood returning to your heart. Hey, I know this is pretty exciting. But you need to calm down, ok? Wait, you can't? Here let me go through the basics of respiration, otherwise known as breathing. Your pharynx is like a tunnel where everything you swallow, goes into. Warm moist air enters it when you breath. Then it enters the Trachea which is the airway to which two pairs of horizontal folds of tissue, called vocal cords, are attached. Forcing air to go between the cords produce sounds. From there on air moves into the trachea, which is about 12 cm in length. Strong rings prevent it from collapsing. At the end of the trachea is ttwo short tubes called bronchi, and air is carried into your lungs by it. Within the lungs, they break apart into smaller tubes. At the end of the bronchi are tiny, thin-walled sacs called alveoli. Hey you in the back! Stop eating your candy bar, that has alot of sugar which is bad for you, you know? I see how your tiny and always tired, you need more nutrients! Nutrients are substance, in food that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair. Zachary Mangum in the back, why are you so small? That may be because you are lacking protein, protein is neccessary for growth and repairment of body cells. Everyone likes hamburgers right? Well, before you take the next bite lets learn some facts about the fat inside. Fats, or lipids, are neccersary because they provide energy and help your body absorb and take in vitamins. Fats also cushions your internal organs. Fat is also a storage unit for energy. Although a down side, is that fats can cause high cholesterol. The deposits on
the insides of blood vessels can accumulate too much and cause heart disease and strokes. You've always heard your parents say, "Eat your vitamins."
Well vitamins are a good thing, they help growth, regulating body functions,
and preventing some diseases. But just make sure you get every food group.
The food are classified because they have
the same type of nutrients. The groups are
fats, Milk, Meat, Vegetables, fruits, and bread All those nutrients better be used to a good use.
Let's go over the skeletal system. All your bones in your body are like a frame work and is called the skeletal system. A living bone's surface is covered with a tough, tight-fitting membrane called the periosteum. Small blood vessels in the periosteum carry nutrients into the bone. Cells involved in the growth and repair of bone also are found in the periosteum. Under the periosteum are two different types of bone tissue?compact bone and spongy bone. At the tips of every bone connecting is cartilage. It acts like a shock abosrber and reduces friction and bones from wearing away. Any point where bones come together is called a joint, it is also held together by a tough band of tissue called ligament. Have you ever been punched?
Well do you want to know why
it hurts so much to be punched in the stomach? The regulation of steady, life-maintaining conditions inside an organism, despite changes in its environment, is called homeostasis The basic functioning units of the nervous system are nerve cells, or neurons. As shown in Figure 2, a neuron is made up of a cell body and branches called dendrites and axons. Dendrites receive messages from other neurons and send them to the cell body. Axons carry messages away from the cell body. Any message carried by a neuron is called an impulse. Notice the branching at the end of the axon. This allows the impulses to move to many other muscles, neurons, or glands. FOr the neurons to move to each other they must pass a small impulse called a synapse. Have you ever wondered how you were born? Well lets go through the steps. After fertilization the zygote will develop into a baby after nine weeks. This period of development from fertilized egg to birth is known as pregnancy. Right after the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus, it is known as an embryo. It receives nutrients from fluids in the uterus until the placenta develops from tissues of the uterus and the embryo. Pregnancy in the women last about 38 weeks, during the third week of it a thin membrane called the amniotic sac will form around the embyro. It is filled with liqued and acts as a embryo and stores nutriends and water. After the first two months of pregnancy, the developing embryo is called a fetus. After the fetus is born it goes through a stage called fetal stress. However, in a short time the fetus adapts. But before you start punching anyone because of your new found knowledge about nervous system. You'll need to know about motion and laws of physics. When your on your daily run, you often slow down and speed up. To calculate your
average speed is total distance divided by time. Instantaneous speed however is the speed at any given time, this is useful for driving. Acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the time needed for the change to occur. What is a force? To put it simple, a force is a push or pull. Whenever you push heavy object you know how hard it is. This tendency to resist a change in motion is called inertia. I know how energetic you are right now. So its a good time to go over energy. Energy is the ability to cause change There are different types of energy. Potential energy is when you are just sitting there and energy is waiting to be used. Kinetic energy is energy in motion. The law of conversation of energy states that energy is never created or destroyed, but always transformed. This explains the relation between potential energy and kinetic energy. Chemical energy is difficult so we will go over one reaction
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy is called an endothermic reaction. Endothermic chemical reactions often take place in the preparation of food. . Have you ever wondered how big boulders can be demolished into little pieces. This is a process called weathering. Theres different type of weathering. Mechanical weathering occurs when rocks are broken apart by physical processes. Ice wedging occurs in temperate and cold climates where water enters cracks in rocks and freezes. Because water expands when it turns to ice, pressure builds up in the cracks he second type of weathering, chemical weathering, occurs when chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals. Weathering depends greatly on weather, hence weather-ing. Climate is the pattern of weather that occurs in a particular area over many years. Have you ever been to a beach recentley? You'll notice that the waves are removing and depositing sediments and dirt. The act of removing something and placing it somewhere else is called erosion. When the sediments are eroded and placed this is called deposition. Mass movement is any type of erosion that
happens as gravity moves it downwards, they are extremely slow. When a mass of material slips down along a curved surface, the mass movement is called slump. Often, when a slope becomes too steep, the base material no longer can support the rock and sediment above it. Creep occurs when sediments slowly shift their positions downhill. Creep is common in areas of freezing and thawing. Sometimes erosion doens't happen by gravity, but by water. Runoffs are any rainwater that does not soak into the ground or evaporate but flows over Earth's surface; generally flows into streams and has the ability to erode and carry sediments. The land where the run off water is collected is called a drainage basin. When streams are rivers happen they make channels because the water is eroding the bottom away. Sheet erosion a type of surface water erosion caused by runoff that occurs when water flowing as sheets picks up sediments and carries them away Erosion is a powerful force it can sometimes cause meanders. A meander is a broad, c-shaped curve in a river or stream, formed by erosion of its outer bank. Are you going on a trip to Africa? Well you'll see some biomes there. You'll be seing mostly deserts and grass lands there. The desert is the driest biome on the deserts. They recieve less then 25 cm of water every yaer, large geographic areas that have similar climates and ecosystems are called biomes. Taiga is a cold, forest, region which is populated by evergreen trees. A tundra is like a Taiga but recieves little precipitation is covered with ice most of the year. It is sometimes called the ice desert. Let's go to a more broader topic. Earth Earth's axis is the imaginary line drawn from the north geographic pole through Earth to the south geographic pole. Earth spins around this imaginary line. The spinning of Earth on its axis, called rotation, causes you to experience day and night The motion of the Earth around the sun is called the revolution. The curved fixed path is the orbit. Because of the Earths tilt the sun is looking at the equator differently. At two times during the year, the Sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator and is directly over the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn, as shown in Figure 6. These times are known as the summer and winter solstices The relationship between chemistry and genetics is because atoms make everything, and genes make up you. There is a relationship between genetics and body system because genes identify your characteriscs of your body parts. When you start running, you need to use physics to be able to run. This is the relationship. Whenever sediments are being eroded, they go through laws of motions all the time, using gravity, friction, etc. Biggs, Alton, Lucy Daniel, Ralph M. Feather, Edward Ortleb, Peter Rillero, Susan L. Snyder, and Dinah Zike. Texas Science Grade 7. Columbus: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.
There is a relationship between ecology and erosion because erosion is everywhere in biomes. There is a relation between ecology and Earth because ecology makes up the Earth.