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Copy of THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

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Lisa Harvey-Nebil

on 25 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

Argyles 'Communication Cycle'
The 'communication cycle' is a theory proposed by Argyle, which brings the communication effective people getting their message across in a two-way-process.


The communication cycle is when we understand what is being said, reflect and check out what the person you are communicating with is sayig. When communicating to people we have to make sure they understand what we are saying and respond to it accordingly.
Bruce Tuckman
Bruce Tuckman (1965) carried out research on group communication based on the four stages: forming, storming, norming and performing.

Tuckman's theory focuses on the group developments where groups go into these stages to make the communication effective.

Tuckman suggests that care professionals should be able to understand the group interaction as the stages are all necessary in a care setting.
Each stage is needed so that a team can grow, to face up challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work and to deliver results.

Tuckman's 'interaction stages'
Tuckman outlined a model group development based around a number of stages, or a sequence of goup activity.
What are theories of communication?
Micheal Argyle
VS
By Sumaiya Hussain
THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION
Bruce Tuckman
Michael Argyle (1925 - 2002)
Micheal Argyle was known as a social psychologist who researched and developed theories about human communication and interpersonal interaction.

He believed that interpersonal communication was like learning how drive a car.
It involves building understanding of listening, observing and reflecting on what another person has to communicate.
In 1967, Argyle claimed that human communication is essentially a two-way process that involves people sending, and responding to each other's verbal and non-verbal messages.

In 1972, Argyle came with the 'communicatoin cycle' theory which sets out to understand, explain and predict how communication occurs between people in one-to-one situations.
6 STAGE COMMUNUNICATION CYCLE!
An idea occurs
The person your communicating has to interpret what you have communicated with using their knowlege of communication skills.

An example of this in a health and social care setting will be: if a nurse sends a message to the patient using gestures. The patient will undertand the message if they hold up a thumbs sign.
Message sent
Message recieved
You think of someing of something you want to communicate about.
For example you might want to pass on an idea or persuade someone to do something.

In Doctor's surgery, an idea will occur as the GP thinks how he will communicate with his patients. This enables him to communicate more efficiently.


Message decoded
Message Understood
At this stage, the message should be understood by the other person by communicating clearly. The participant can then give feedback which repeats the process and builds into a communication cycle.

An example of this in a health and social care setting is that if the nurse sends the message, the patient will understand this by nodding their head and using facial expressions to show the nurse that the message is understood.
This is when you consider what your going to say and how your going to say it and decide what of form of communication should be in. For example sign languages, gestures, spoken words. You put this form inside your head.

An example when a care worker is thinking how to communicate back to the other person by choocsing words or other non-verbal communication.
Message Coded
You send in the message in a way that you might find more comfortable via speech, writing, signing.

For example, in a care home the care worker will use sign language or symbols to send the message across to the recipent.
The other person notices that you've sent a message and hears or sees the message.

An example of a message being recieved in a health and social care setting would be if a nurse sits with a patient and communicates face to face.
The patient will recieve the message and will respond to the message by using facial expressions, nodding or words. This will show the nurse that the patient has recieved the messsage.

Problems
in a 'communication cycle'
However, their are number of things that can go wrong in a 'communication cycle'.

1) The idea may not be planned in thought and the person might say whatever is in thier head. this would make the converstaion unclear and it will hinder the communication from being effective.

2) The message sent may be inaccurate or too vague for the other person to understand.

3) They might have used the wrong language terms that the other person is unfamiliar with and this can lead to the other person making assumptions as to what they mean and the communication can be misunderstood.
FORMING
This is the first stage where it involves group members coming together to form a team or group discussion. At this stage, memebers would ask questions about the purpose and aims of the group and also share eachother's information.

The forming stage is very important because members of the team get to know eachother, exchange some personal information and it's a good opportunity to see how each member of the team works as an individual.
Storming
In the second stage, storming is important for the growth of the group. Care professionals adresses issues such as what problems they are really supposed to solve, how they will function independently and together, and leadership model they will accept.

It is important for the team to have a strong facilitative leadership at this stage so it prevents team memebers to get into any arguments or conflicts between one another. Without tolerence and patience, the team will fail.

Norming
The third step is Norming. At this stage, care professionals establishes on the rules and values by which they operate and also it's the time where the group's identity starts to develope.
The group resolves at one goal and agrees a shared plan to achieve it. The group becomes more cohesive and group members tend to work together to solve conflicts.
In the end, everyone gets along with eachother as they are more focused on the task and communication becomes more effective because each person relys on one another in order to make the group going.
Performing
In this last stage, communication becomes clearer because the group finally matures and gets down to working effectively. Decision making is collaborative and there is a high level of respect and loyalty where each memeber will listen to each other's point of view to make best for the team.

By doing this, the goal for the team can be achieved and they show commitment to the group and work effectively.
He suggested that that group must go through stages to be effective and the pattern of communication in each of the four stages are different.
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